top of page

Search CSNewbs

286 items found for ""

  • HTML Guide 2 - Essential Tags | CSNewbs

    2. Creating Essential Tags HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: What is a tag ? HTML uses tags to define the content of a webpage . ​ A tag uses angle brackets - they look just like my teeth... ​ Some examples of tags are and and ​ ​ ​ Most tags have a start tag and an end tag . The actual content is written in between the tags . For example : ​ The p tag is used to write a paragraph ​ Notice that the end tag uses a forward slash . < > Essential Tags There are three tags that are essential for every HTML web page : ​ - This tag declares the start and the end of your html web page. - The head is the part of the web page that the user will not see. - The body holds all of the content of the web page (text, images, video etc.) ​ Don't forget to use backslash for the end tags : / Use the image on the right to add the three essential tags (and their end tags) to your document. Now it is time to add something we can actually see! Text tags are up next. 1. Setup HTML Guide 3. Text Tags

  • 3.6 - 7 Layer OSI Model - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.6: 7-Layer OSI Model Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What are networking standards? Networking standards are rules that allow computer systems to communicate across networks . Standards have been created to ensure devices can exchange data and work together . What is the 7-layer OSI Model? The OSI ( Open Systems Interconnection ) model is split into 7 layers . The model is used to visualise the different parts of a network as each of the seven layers has a specific role . ​ Splitting a network design into layers is beneficial to programmers as it simplifies design , making it easier to modify and use . ​ Each layer has a certain purpose and is associated with different protocols . ​ The seven layers are explained below: 7 Allows humans and software applications to use the network e.g. browsers (HTTP /HTTPS ) and email (SMTP ) and file transfer (FTP ). 6 The purpose of the presentation layer is to display data in a standard format that other devices can accept and understand . 5 The session layer establishes a connection between computers allowing data to be sent between them. Data can be synchronised in each session to allow for efficient data transfer . 4 TCP breaks the data down into data packets . This layer makes sure the data is sent and received in the correct order and reassembled at the destination without errors. 3 IP is responsible for addressing and routing data packets . The optimal route for the data to take is calculated in this layer. Also known as the 'Internet Layer '. 2 Ethernet sets out the format of data packets . This layer handles transmission errors and passes data to the physical layer . 1 This layer converts the data packets into bits so they can be transferred across a physical connection using routers and switches . Q uesto's Q uestions 3.6 - 7-Layer OSI Model: 1a. What are networking standards ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe why network designs are split into layers . [ 2 ] 2. Create a diagram similar to the one above and describe each layer of the OSI Model. [ 14 ] 3. Look at the statements below and name the layer that is being described: a. This layer ensures data packets are sent and received correctly. b. This layer checks for errors in transmission and sets out the data packet format. c. This layer displays data in a format that can be understood. d. This layer allows software like web browsers to interact with the network. e. This layer transfers bits across a connection using routers. f. This layer establishes a connection between computer systems. g. This layer uses addresses to ensure data packets take the correct route. [ 7 ] 3.5 - Protocols Theory Topics 3.7 - The Internet

  • OCR A-Level Component 2 | CSNewbs

    OCR Computer Science A-Level Component 2: Algorithms & Programming These pages are based on content from the OCR Computer Science 2015 specification . This website is in no way affiliated with OCR . 1. Computational Thinking 1.1 - Computational Thinking 2. Problem Solving & Programming 2.1a - Recursion & Variables 2.1b - Modularity & IDE 2.2a - Computational Methods 2.2b - Object-Oriented Programming 3. Algorithms 3.1a - Algorithm Design 3.1b - Big O Notation 3.1c - Data Structures: Stacks, Queues & Lists 3.1d - Data Structures: Trees & Graphs 3.1e - Sorting Algorithms 3.1f- Searching Algorithms 3.1g - Pathfinding

  • Greenfoot Guide #4 | Remove Objects | CSNewbs

    4. Remove Objects Greenfoot Tutorial 1. Removing Objects Watch on YouTube: Open the editor for your main character . ​ Underneath the if statements for using the arrow keys is where we type the removal code . ​ If you have chosen a different collectible object, type the exact name of that class instead of Orange (e.g. Apples or Ants). 2. Add Danger to your Game Use the same code as you did earlier but change the class (instead of Orange. class I have chosen Sheep. class ). Time to code your main character to be removed if they are touched by the enemy objects ! ​ Open the editor for your enemy class . ​ The removal code is placed beneath the code you have already written. ​ Check out the extension page if you want the game to stop when the main character is removed. < Part 3 - Random Movement Part 5 - Play Sounds >

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 5.1 - Ethical Issues | CSNewbs

    5.1 - Ethical Issues Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What is ethics? Ethics refers to what is right and wrong . The following issues are often linked to or backed up by legislation. Whistle Blowing Definition: When a member of staff reveals that the organisation they work for are engaging in unlawful practices . This could include breaking privacy laws, threatening staff and environmental damage. ​ In some countries, like the UK, whistleblowers are protected by law. Whistleblowers are protected from being fired or not being considered for promotion as a result of their actions. ​ A famous whistleblower is Edward Snowden , who revealed in 2013 that many governments, including the USA and the UK, were spying on their civilians with widespread undocumented surveillance. Should Martin reveal that his company is dumping old computers into a lake or just stay quiet? Graham feels that, because of his disability, he is being ignored for a promotion that he deserves. Discrimination Definition: When an employee is treated unfairly because of a personal or physical characteristic over which they have no control . ​ The Equality Act (2010) ensures equal treatment for all people irrespective of: race sexuality gender disability marital status (and many more) Examples of discrimination include offensive talk, harassment, unequal pay and being ignored for promotion. Use of Information Definition: Laws such as GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation ) and specifically the Data Protection Act (2018) ensure that organisations must responsibly process personal data. Organisations have a legal obligation to keep their employee and customer personal data secure and out of reach from unauthorised viewers. Considerations should be made about how the information is ethically collected , stored and processed . DataDyne backs up customer information on cloud storage - what if this data is compromised ? As part of quality assurance, Selside Bank double check performance reviews before submission. Codes of Practice Definition: A set of rules which explains how people working in certain professions are required to behave . Organisations may have a code of practice for: ​ Confidentiality (rules on what data can and cannot be shared with others), Quality assurance (ensuring high quality is maintained for all products/services), Behaviour (setting out how employees are expected to behave at work and in communication with each other and customers), Equality and discrimination (being understanding and providing fair access to all employees). ​ Employees must agree to the codes of practice so they are clear on their expectations of what is and isn't acceptable at work. The organisation can then discipline employees that broke the codes of practice they formerly agreed to. Online Safety Definition: Often companies will provide an induction (training ) to new employees about the organisation’s code of practice for using the internet whilst at work . If an individual does not behave safely online or breaks the organisation's codes of practice (by gambling at work for example) then they may be punished (e.g. fined or fired). ​ Employees can ensure that they are safe online by using secure passwords that are regularly updated and preventing web browsers from remembering login details . Miriam changes her password each month to minimise the chance of hackers accessing her account. The CEO of Honey Media apologies in public after biased information led to a lawsuit and loss of reputation. Bias Definition: This is technically correct, but slanted , information that presents a one-sided view . For example, end-of year financial data that focuses on profits and ignores significant losses. ​ Poor quality information may lead to an organisation being misinformed and not sufficiently responding to their customers' needs - for example if a survey was only completed by a small number of people it could generate biased results. ​ As a result of poor quality information, organisations may suffer from damage to their reputation due to negative feedback and reviews from customers, possibly posted online. A lack of trust can occur if customers feel neglected because of decisions made using biased information of a poor quality, therefore reputational damage may lead to loss of customers . Q uesto's Q uestions 5.1 - Ethical Issues: ​ 1. Describe what whistleblowing is and give 3 examples . [4 ] ​ 2. Describe what discrimination is and give 4 examples . [5 ] ​ 3. Which law relates to the use of information ? [1 ] ​ 4a. Describe 2 things that may be included in an organisation's codes of practice . [4 ] 4b. Explain why employees must agree to their company's codes of practice [4 ]. ​ 5. Describe 2 things an employee should do to stay safe online . [2 ] ​ 6a. What is biased information ? [2 ] 6b. Describe 3 possible effects to a company if they use biased information . [6 ] 4.6 & 4.7 - Bodies & Certification 5.2 - Operational Issues Topic List

  • Unit 1 - Fundamentals of IT - Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    OCR Cambridge Technicals IT Level 3 Unit 1: Fundamentals of IT These pages are based on content from the OCR Cambridge Technicals 2016 Level 3 IT specification . This website is in no way affiliated with OCR . LO1 (Computer Hardware ) 1.1 - Computer Hardware 1.2 - Computer Components 1.3 - Types of Computer System 1.4 - Connectivity 1.5 - Communication Hardware 1.6 - Hardware Troubleshooting 1.7 - Units of Measurement 1.8 & 1.9 - Number Systems & Conversion LO2 (Computer Software ) 2.1 - Types of Software 2.2 - Applications Software 2.3 - Utility Software 2.4 - Operating Systems 2.5 - Communication Methods 2.6 - Software Troubleshooting 2.7 - Protocols LO3 (Networks & Systems ) 3.1 - Server Types 3.2 - Virtualisation 3.3 - Network Characteristics 3.4 - Connection Methods 3.5 - Business Systems LO4 ( Employability & Communication ) 4.1 - Communication Skills 4.2 - Communication Technology 4.3 - Personal Attributes 4.4 - Ready for Work 4.5 - Job Roles 4.6 & 4.7 - Bodies & Certification LO5 (Issues & Security ) 5.1 - Ethical Issues 5.2 - Operational Issues 5.3 - Threats 5.4 - Physical Security 5.5 - Digital Security 5.6 - Data & System Disposal

  • 6.2 - Utility Software - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    6.2: Utility Software Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is utility software? Utility software are dedicated programs used for the maintenance and organisation of a computer system. Antivirus Antivirus software is used to locate and delete viruses on a computer system. The antivirus scans each file on the computer and compares it against a database of known viruses . Files with similar features to viruses in the database are identified and deleted . Firewall A firewall manages incoming and outgoing network traffic . Each data packet is processed to check whether it should be given access to the network by examining the source and destination address . ​ Unexpected data packets will be filtered out and not accepted to the network. Disk Defragmenter As files are edited over time they will become fragmented - this is when the file is split into parts that are stored in different locations on the hard disk drive . Files that are fragmented take longer to load and read because of the distance between the fragments of the file. Defragmentation software is used to rearrange the file on the hard disk drive so that all parts are together again in order. Defragmentation improves the speed of accessing data on the hard disk drive. Backup Software System backup copies data onto a separate storage device in case the original information is lost or corrupted . ​ Backups should be saved regularly and stored in a different location to the rest of the data. Magnetic tape is a common backup medium. ​ A typical backup policy is one known as 'grandfather - father - son' which uses three different backups at a time. Disk Compression Compression is the process of decreasing the size of a file . Disk compression is a utility tool that automatically compresses files when saved so that more data can be stored on the hard disk drive. When a file is to be opened, the program is automatically decompressed . Disk compression increases the amount of space on a hard disk drive but it takes longer to open and close files . Disk Checker ​ This utility is used to scan a hard drive for any corrupted data . ​ The corrupted data is deleted to speed up reading from and writing to the hard drive. ​ More advanced disk checkers are used to scan for bad sectors . A bad sector is a permanently damaged section of the hard drive which can no longer be used and must be skipped over. Disk Formatter Disk Partition Editor This utility tool prepares a storage device such as the hard disk drive to be used by removing the current data and creating a file system . A file system manages how data is stored and accessed . ​ Other devices like a USB stick may need to be formatted before they can be used for the first time . Within memory, partitions are segments of data that have been grouped together logically on the hard disk drive . ​ A disk partition editor allows a user to view and modify these memory partitions . Options include creating, editing and deleting partitions. Clipboard Manager The clipboard is a temporary storage space for copied data. For example, a large amount of text can be copied and stored on the clipboard to be pasted into another document, even when the original file has been closed . ​ The clipboard manager adds more functionality to the clipboard to allow multiple pieces of data to be copied, cut and pasted . System Profiles A system profiler displays detailed information about the applications on a computer system, as well as data about any attached hardware devices . ​ Information is provided and updated in real-time about the performance of software and internal components such as the CPU . Data Recovery Data recovery tools allow deleted, corrupted or otherwise inaccessible data to be returned to a usable state . ​ The data loss may have been caused by physical damage to a drive, corrupt memory partitions or accidental deletion . ​ Most data is not permanently removed when it is deleted so data recovery software can often be used to reaccess files . Revision Control Revision control software manages previous versions of an application so that if an error occurs the program can be returned to a previous state . ​ This is also called version control software and can be used to manage and monitor changes made to files over time. Archiver Archiving is the process of storing important data that is not currently required . It must not be deleted but it shouldn't take up valuable storage space either. ​ An archiver compresses multiple files using lossless compression into one folder . This archived folder can be stored on a computer system or transferred to a storage device and won't take up much space . Cryptographic Utilities A cryptographic utility is used to encrypt data so that it cannot be understood if intercepted . Encryption is commonly for data in transit - being sent between devices . ​ Cryptographic software can also encrypt data at rest - when stored on a hard disk drive for example - so that hackers would be unable to use the data . File Manager This utility tool provides an interface to the user for accessing, editing and moving files and folders on the system. ​ Programs will be displayed in a hierarchical ( ordered ) structure with icons representing the application logo or file type. ​ Files can be ordered in alphabetical, chronological or other orders and the manager provides an abstracted visualisation of where the data is stored. Q uesto's Q uestions 6.2 - Utility Software: ​ 1. What is meant by utility software ? [1 ] ​ 2. Describe each type of utility software : a. Antivirus b . Firewall c . Disk Defragmenter d . Backup Software e . Disk Compression f . Disk Checker g . Disk Formatter h . Disk Partition Editor i . Clipboard Manager j . System Profiles k . Data Recovery l . Revision Control m . Archiver n . Cryptographic Utilities o . File Manager [2 ] 6.1 - Operating Systems Theory Topics 7.1 - Language Levels

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 5.6 - Data Disposal | CSNewbs

    5.6 - Data & System Disposal Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Computer components such as circuit boards, processors and monitors contain hazardous materials that cannot be disposed of in traditional ways such as rubbish collection and landfills. For security reasons, data must also be disposed of carefully so that it is not returned to a readable format by unauthorised viewers . Legislation In recent years the government has introduced different laws that relate to the safe disposal of computer equipment to help reduce environmental impact . ​ Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment ( WEEE ) Directive: ​ Gives guidance on how hazardous materials should be disposed of safely . This includes material such as mercury (found in smartphones and newer monitors) and toner cartridges in printers. These materials can damage the environment if not disposed of appropriately. ​ Waste Acceptance Criteria ( WAC ) : ​ Before equipment can be sent to a landfill it has to pass this set of rules . Hazardous material like the elements found in computer monitors will not pass these criteria and should therefore not be accepted to landfills. ​ Hazardous Waste Directive: Ensure that businesses store hazardous materials and equipment safely and use authorised businesses to dispose of the waste . Hazardous materials include mercury and hexavalent chromium. ​ Data Protection Act ( DPA ) : ​ One principle of the DPA specifies that data should only be kept for a reasonable amount of time until it is securely deleted . Methods of Data & System Disposal Overwriting is when data is sent to the hard disk drive to overwrite the binary values currently on the drive - resetting the data . Overwriting just once is usually not enough to remove all evidence of the data and the process should be repeated several times . Overwriting data means the drive can still be used for other purposes afterwards. Electromagnetic wiping uses a machine called a degausser , which has a very strong electromagnetic coil , to completely wipe the hard disk drive . ​ Many large organisations use degaussers to be sure that their data is no longer on the devices they have used so it can’t be restored and accessed by unauthorised viewers . ​ Degaussers are expensive to buy but it allows the device to be used again for other purposes afterwards as it is not physically damaged. A third option is the physical destruction of a system or hard disk drive which will guarantee that the data is permanently inaccessible . However physical destruction also renders the storage media unusable again for other purposes. ​ Examples of physical destruction include shredding or tools such as sledgehammers if no other option is available. Q uesto's Q uestions 5.6 - Data & System Disposal: ​ 1. Describe the purpose of 4 different pieces of legislation relating to how data or computer systems should be disposed of safely . [8 ] ​ 2a. State 3 methods of data and system disposal . [3 ] 2b. Describe 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of using each method you stated in 2a. [6 ] 5.5 - Digital Security Topic List

  • Greenfoot Guide #2 | Arrow Key Movement | CSNewbs

    Right-click on your main character class and select ' Open editor '. ​ The editor allows you to write different methods - actions that the class can perform. ​ The act() method will repeat whenever the Run button is pressed. 1. Open the Code Editor 2. Movement with the Arrow Keys Greenfoot Tutorial Watch on YouTube: 2. Copy the Code CAREFULLY You need to use an if statement to check if a certain key (like the right arrow key) is being pressed down . ​ An if statement must be contained in standard brackets . After each if statement, the proceeding code must be typed within curly brackets - see the image on the left . ​ Tip - If the brackets are on the same line then use the standard brackets ( and ) ​ If the brackets are on different lines then use curly brackets { and } Your code must be perfect or it won't work. 'Greenfoot ' requires a capital G and the isKeyDown method most be written with a lowercase i but uppercase K and D . When the right arrow key is pressed the object will change its rotation to 0° which is right . It will also move 1 place in this direction. Rotations in Greenfoot: 3. Code the Other Arrow Keys Directly underneath the if statement for turning and moving right, add the code for turning and moving down . You can see in the diagram above the degrees to rotate in each of the four directions . Write the code to move in all four directions. ​ Ensure you have the correct number of brackets or the program won't start. ​ Remember brackets that start and end on the same line are ( ) and brackets over multiple lines are { } . 4. Compile and Run Click the Compile button at the top of the code editor . ​ Then you can go back to the main Greenfoot window and click Run . ​ Press the arrow keys to test your main character moves . Click on me if you've got an error that you're stuck with. < Part 1 - Setup & Populating the World Part 3 - Movement (Random) >

  • | CSNewbs

    Preparation is the key to success. I won't say "Good Luck", because luck won't make you pass an exam. Focus and effort will. Thanks sir, now let me use your awesome site.

bottom of page