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  • Computer Science Newbies

    C omputer S cience P ros Official 2024 CSPros: Jack Harry Aarav Trisha Mario Hiba Rory Clark Lucy Divya Luke Callum James Zoya Timucin Matthew 2023 CSPros: Henry Zain Iman Alex I-C Alex B Tomos Aidan Rahul Hussain Diyar Sam Harry Will Alex H 2022 CSPros: Logan Eleanor Mark Edward Alfie Henry Enzo Sam George Harry Ella Kav

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 2.5 & 4.2 - Communication Methods | CSNewbs

    2.5 & 4.2: Communication Methods Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Sections 2.5 and 4.2 are very similar so both are mixed within this page. ​ There are many ways that employees of a business can communicate between staff members or with their customers . Text-based Communication Letter ✓ Traditional - used for formal occasions such as resignations or job offers. ✓ Can be kept and stored for physical evidence - e.g. an applicant's CV. ​ X Requires postage costs to be sent in the mail. X Takes time to be received in the post . X Can't include certain formats like video. Text Message (SMS) ✓ Reach a large audience at once with one batch message . ✓ Good for short messages - e.g. reminders for appointments. ✓ Doesn't require an internet connection to receive messages. ​ X Limited to short messages with no multimedia . X Text messages can cost to send per message. Email ✓ Send information to many people at once. ✓ Can include documents , multimedia attachments and links . ​ X Important messages may be lost in the spam folder. X Phishing scams can spread malware via email attachments. Instant Messaging ✓ Works in real time - messages are sent and received instantly . ✓ Attachments and hyperlinks can be sent. ✓ Can be used by support staff to help customers in real time. ​ X Quick speed means it's less suitable for formal conversations like interviews. X Internet access issues will disrupt any conversations . Voice-based Communication Cellular ✓ Can hear how something is said , unlike text responses. ✓ Fastest method of communication - also allows reactive conversations that can quickly change based on previous responses. ​ X Impacted by cellular reception - won't work in remote areas / underground. X Can't see the other person's body language, presentation or facial expressions. Teleconferences ✓ Allows for groups of people to communicate at once . ✓ Businesses can use teleconferencing to communicate between offices / individuals across the world . ​ X The quality of the call may be affected by a group's poor reception . X Because a group is communicating, people may speak over each other , especially if there is a time delay . VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) ✓ Allows a user to make calls over the internet (such as using WhatsApp). ✓ Cheaper (can also be free) to make calls rather than using a cellular network . ​ X Relies on a good quality internet connection . X Can potentially be less secure than cellular connections. hi there Personal Assistants ✓ Speeds up processes by making appointments, checking information etc. ✓ Voice-activated - can be used whilst otherwise busy, such typing or writing. ✓ The language can be changed to suit people's preferences. ​ X Huge privacy concerns - companies store audio data for voice recognition and track all commands made to the device. X Recognition issues - sometimes doesn't understand a command. Online Communication Video Conferences ✓ Can be used for interviews as it allows the applicant and the interviewers to see each other and look for body language . ✓ Users can share information visually such as designs. ​ X A high-bandwidth connection is required to send and receive video data. X A poor connection will result in low quality video. Social Media ✓ Businesses can quickly share information to a large audience , potentially millions. ✓ Posts can be in different formats such as text, images, videos or links to other websites. ​ X Businesses must be cautious about what they post , to not accidentally offend others and damage their reputation . X Posts and responses from customers must be carefully managed, a social media manager should be hired. Blog / Vlog ✓ Share information with followers in the format of text , images and video . ✓ Blogs and vlogs can unite people with similar interests , such as a cookery blog or travel vlog. ​ X Takes a lot of effort and time to create posts, especially editing videos for vlogs. X Bad behaviour or language in vlogs can bring punishment. Several YouTubers have lost their reputations following videos they have posted. Q uesto's Q uestions 2.5 & 4.2 - Communication Methods: ​ 1. Describe three advantages and three disadvantages for each type of communication method . You will need to think of or research some more than the examples listed on this page. a. Letter b. SMS (Text Message) c. Email d. Instant Message e. Cellular Call f. Teleconference g. VoIP Call h. Personal Assistant i. Video Conference j. Social Media k. Blog / Vlog [6 each ] ​ 2. Explain what VoIP stands for and what it allows a user to do. [ 2 ] ​ 3. Describe which communication method would be most appropriate for the following scenarios and why : a. Informing your boss you are going to resign. b. Communicating with management about raising your pay. c. Chatting to team members about when the Christmas party is. d. Sending promotions to thousands of customers. e. Interviewing a potential new employee who is in a different country. f. Talking with a group of investors about the company's latest data. [2 each ] 2.6 - Software Troubleshooting 2.4 Operating Systems 4.1 Communication Skills 4.3 - Personal Attributes Topic List

  • 1.1 - Holders of Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.1 - Holders of Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Categories of Information Holders Organisations that store and process information can be put into seven different categories : Business A business will hold information on all of its employees , including their date of birth, address and financial information , allowing them to be paid at the end of each month. Businesses will also hold commercial information about their organisation such as profits and losses, product descriptions and historical data . Many companies may record information about their competitors and general marketing data. Government The government will hold a huge amount of information about all citizens in the country including financial earnings, tax paid, births and deaths . The electoral roll holds information about addresses . A national census is taken every 10 years in the UK (the next census is in 2021) that records extensive data about everyone living in the country. The government also stores information about other countries and shares some of this publicly, such as the Foreign Office posting travel advice . Individual Education Educational organisations , such as schools, colleges and universities will hold information about current and past students as well as staff. Student information such as addresses, attendance records and examination history will be recorded, as well as contact information for parents and guardians. Teacher information will be stored too, as well as students that previously attended the institution, even for a number of years after they have left. An individual will hold information about themselves , either in their head or on paper or electronically. This includes their name, date of birth, address, usernames and passwords . Individuals will store information of others , such as phone numbers, social media details and email addresses . Other information will be about organisations , such as the address of their favourite restaurant, opening hours of the local cinema or the telephone number from a catchy advert. Healthcare Healthcare services , like the NHS in the United Kingdom, will hold entire medical histories for each civilian in the country. This includes basic personal information such as current address and date of birth but much more detailed data too like previous illnesses and operations, blood type, allergies and prescriptions . The data stored by healthcare organisations is usually confidential and should not be shared by anyone other than the citizen in question. Charity & Community Charities may hold financial information of donors who give money to them, as well as information about the different projects that the donations are funding. Charities such as the British Heart Foundation might have physical addresses on the high street so information may be kept about the shops too. Community organisations like sport centres or religious institutions may hold information on members and matches, meetings or events . Comparison of Locations The location of systems and data affects access speed and network quality . ​ The digital divide is the gap between people who do and do not have easy access to computers and networks . Developed vs. Developing Countries Developed countries , like areas of Western Europe, North America and East Asia, have a more developed technology and industry base with more funding available for information infrastructures such as cabling and high-speed access . ​ Developing countries , like areas of Africa and Central Asia, have unstable governments and slower access (if any) to the internet . Less money is spent on technology and improving broadband speed and expensive equipment like computers cannot be purchased on low wages . Urban vs. Rural Urban locations like towns and cities have a high population density . Because there are so many people, councils and IT companies will spend a lot of money on internet infrastructure such as cabling and installing high-speed lines . ​ In Rural locations like the countryside, the population is sparse and settlements may be far apart so internet access is poorer and broadband speeds are slower . This means accessing information on the internet is more difficult . Internet Access from Remote Locations Remote locations (such as the countryside or difficult-to-reach areas like mountains or deserts) might have limited internet access . Fast fixed broadband is expensive to install and many providers simply won't invest in rural areas as it is not economically viable . Some areas, usually those with a very small or temporary population, might have no fixed internet access which will make it difficult for an individual or organisation to communicate or work online. Many remote locations have some form of internet but download speeds will be slow or interrupted due to intermittent connection . This makes it difficult to work online and could take a long time to access webpages or document stores. ​ Alternatives to fixed broadband in remote locations include mobile broadband and satellite broadband . Mobile broadband is generally not designed for home use and would be very expensive for everyday use , plus the remote location will generally mean mobile coverage could also be weak . Satellite broadband requires a dish with an unrestricted view of the sky. Satellite broadband has a relatively high internet speed but will cost a lot to install and has a high latency (more chance of experiencing lag). Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1 - Holders of Information: ​ 1a. State the 7 categories of information holders . [7 ] 1b. For each of the 7 categories , briefly describe 3 different pieces of information that may be stored by the information holder. For example, a charity may store the financial information of donors. [3 each ] ​ 2. What is the digital divide ? [2 ] ​ 3. Describe the differences in information access for the following locations : a. Developed vs. developing countries b. Urban vs. rural areas c. Remote locations [4 each ] Topic List 1.2 - Storage Media

  • Python | Section 6 Practice Tasks | CSNewbs

    top Python - Section 6 Practice Tasks Task One Using for loops , create a program to output this nursery rhyme: "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Once I caught a fish alive, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 then I let it go again". Requirements for full marks: A comment at the start to explain what a for loop is. Two for loops. Example solution: Task Two Create a program using a while loop that keeps asking a user to enter a number and adds those numbers together to a total. When the total goes over 100, the program stops and outputs: “OVERLOAD! You have gone over 100!” ​ Requirements for full marks: A comment at the start to explain what a while loop is. Example solution: Task Three Use a while true loop to let the user enter either A or B. A lets them guess a secret colour . If they get it wrong continue the loop but if they got it correct break the loop. ​ B lets them guess a secret number . Continue if they guess it incorrectly or break if they get it correct. Example solution: ⬅ 6b - W hile Loops 7a - Procedures ➡

  • HTML Guide 10 - More Pages | CSNewbs

    10. More Pages HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: Create a New Page Create a new page by either clicking the new page icon in Notepad ++ or selecting File then New . ​ Then you need to save your new page with an appropriate name as a HTML file . Create a new page, save it and add information to it. Your new page needs the same essential tags as your original page: ​ Then you can add the rest of your content . Link to Other Pages The tag is used to link between pages , just like it is used to hyperlink to other websites. ​ Make sure you type your web pages exactly as you have saved them. ​ Make sure all of your web pages are saved in the same folder . Include links between pages on each new page. A link to the second page. Don't forget a link back to your homepage on each new page. Why not add more pages to make your website more detailed? 9. Colours & Fonts HTML Guide

  • Greenfoot | Key Code | CSNewbs

    Greenfoot Code Glossary Greenfoot Home This code will work for Version 2.4.2 which is used in Component 2 of the 2016 WJEC/Edquas specification . Key Down 270 if (Greenfoot.isKeyDown("right" )) { setRotation(0); move(1); } 180 90 0 Bounce At Edge if (isAtEdge()) { turn(180); } move(1); if (Greenfoot.getRandomNumber(10)<1) { turn(Greenfoot.getRandomNumber(90) - 45); } Random Remove Object if (isTouching(Apple.class )) { removeTouching(Apple.class ); } Play Sound Greenfoot.playSound("pop.wav" ); Stop Greenfoot.stop(); Counter - (Write this code when an object is removed) Counter counter = (Counter) getWorld().getObjects(Counter.class ).get(0); counter.add(1); Stuck? If you start typing but can't remember what commands come next, press Ctrl and Space together to show a list of all possible commands that you can use.

  • 1.2 - Processors | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 1.2 Processors Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has fewer instructions than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but quick for basic tasks . CISC has more complex instructions available and can therefore perform complicated tasks . Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.2 - Processors: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 1.1b Performance Theory Topics 1.3a - Input & Output Devices

  • 8.2 - Understanding Algorithms - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    8.2: Understanding Algorithms Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is an algorithm? An algorithm is a set of instructions , presented in a logical sequence . ​ In an exam you may be asked to read and understand an algorithm that has been written. To prove your understanding you may be asked to respond by actions such as listing the outputs of the algorithm, correcting errors or identifying an error within it. ​ Programmers create algorithm designs as a method of planning a program before writing any code. This helps them to consider the potential problems of the program and makes it easier to start creating source code. There are two main methods of defining algorithms : Defining Algorithms - Pseudocode & Flowcharts Pseudocode Pseudocode is not a specific programming language but a more general method of describing instructions . It should be unambiguous, and it should not resemble any particular kind of programming language (e.g. Python or Java), so it can theoretically be turned into working code in any language. ​ Generally, pseudocode can be written in any way that is readable and clearly shows its purpose. However, the Eduqas exam board advises that pseudocode for the programming exam should follow the conventions below : Annotation { Write your comment in curly brackets} ​ Define data type price is integer firstname is string ​ Declare a variable's value set price = 100 set firstname = "Marcella" ​ Input / output output "Please enter your first name" input firstname Selection (must have indentation) if firstname = "Steven" then​ output "Hello" + firstname elif firstname = "Steve" then output "Please use full name" else output "Who are you?" end if ​ Iteration (while loop) while firstname ! = "Steven" output "Guess my name." input firstname repeat Iteration (for loop) for i in range 10 input item next i ​ Define a subroutine Declare Sub1 [Subroutine content indented] End Sub1 ​ Call a subroutine call Sub1 Flowcharts A flowchart can be used to visually represent an algorithm. The flowchart symbols are: Algorithm Examples Below are two different methods for representing the same algorithm - a program to encourage people to buy items cheaply at a supermarket. The program allows the price of items in a supermarket to be entered until the total reaches 100. The total price and the number of items entered are tracked as the program loops. Once the total reaches 100 or more, an if statement checks how many items have been entered and a different message is printed if there are 20 or more items, 30 or more items or less than 20 items. Pseudocode Flowchart {This is a program to see how many items you can buy in a supermarket before you spend over £100} ​ total is integer, itemsentered is integer, itemprice is integer set total = 0 set itemsentered = 0 ​ while total < 100 output "enter the price of the next item" input itemprice total = total + itemprice itemsentered = itemsentered + 1 repeat if itemsentered >= 20 then output "You are on your way to saving money." elif itemsentered => 30 then output "You're a real money saver." else output "Look for better deals next time." end if Reading Algorithms In an exam you may be asked to read an algorithm and prove your understanding , most commonly by listing the outputs . ​ Start from the first line and follow the program line by line , recording the value of variables as you go . ​ When you encounter a for loop , repeat the indented code as many times as stated in the range . Example Algorithm: Start NewProgram ​ i is integer maxvalue is integer ​ input maxvalue ​ for i = 1 to maxvalue output (i * i) ??????? ​ output 'program finished' ​ End NewProgram Example Questions: 1. List the outputs produced by the algorithm if the 'maxvalue' input is 5 . ​ 2. State the code that has been replaced by '???????' and what the code's purpose is. Example Answers: 1. Outputs: 1 4 9 16 25 program finished 2. Missing Code: next i Purpose: Moves the loop to the next iteration. Watch on YouTube Q uesto's Q uestions 8.2 - Understanding Algorithms: ​ 1a. Read the algorithm shown on the left and list all outputs in the correct order if the inputs are 2 for height and 72 for weight . ​ 1b. Give the code that is missing from line 25 . 8.1 - Programming Principles Theory Topics 8.3 - Writing Algorithms

  • Python | Setting up Python | CSNewbs

    Setting up Python Downloading Python If you are using Python in Computer Science lessons, then your school should already have it downloaded and installed on the school computers. ​ It is a good idea to download it on a home computer too so you can practice outside of lessons. Python is free and can be downloaded from the official website. You should download the most up-to-date version of Python 3. ​ Save the file and then run it to start installing. Official Download Page Using Python When you run the Python application, it will open the shell. This window will display the outputs of any program you have created. ​ Do not type into the shell . ​ Click on the File tab then New File to open the editor. Python Shell - This displays the outputs of your program. Do not write directly into the shell . Python Editor - All code is written into the editor. When you want to test a program press the F5 key (or click the Run tab then Run Module ). The first time you test a program, it will prompt you to save the file. Make sure you save it somewhere you will remember - it is a good idea to create a folder named 'Python' where you can keep all your practice programs. The next page looks at actually creating a program but above shows how code has been typed into the editor and then displayed in the shell. ​ You never need to save the shell window. Also, the editor saves automatically every time you run the program. Opening a Saved Program When you want to re-open and edit a file you have created previously double-clicking on it won't work . ​ Right-click on the file and select Edit with IDLE : 1 a - Printing ➡

  • 1.1b - Performance | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 1.1b Performance Specification: A-Level 2015 The performance of a computer system is affected by four main factors: Cache Memory: Size & Levels What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . What are the 3 levels of cache memory? Level 1 cache is the smallest level (less than a megabyte ) but it is also the fastest . Level 2 cache is larger than level 1 (up to 8 megabytes ) but slightly slower. Level 3 cache is located outside of the CPU core which makes it slower than the first two levels but it is much larger (up to 50 megabytes ). How does cache memory work? ​ When the CPU searches for data , it looks first in level 1 cache, then level 2 and then level 3 . If the data has been found , this is called a 'cache hit '. If the data is not found then the CPU searches in RAM instead which takes more time - this is called a 'cache miss '. How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is closer to the CPU than RAM , meaning that it can provide data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate . ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because repeatedly used instructions can be stored and accessed faster . ​ Larger level 1 and level 2 cache sizes will improve a computer's performance as data can be accessed extremely quickly . What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is costly, so most computers only have a small amount . ​ Multiple cache misses will result in data latency (delay) as information is accessed from RAM which is further away from the CPU. Clock Speed What is clock speed? Clock speed is the measure of how quickly a CPU can process instructions . ​ Clock speed is measured in Gigahertz (GHz) . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of 3.5 GHz . This means it can perform 3.5 billion cycles a second . How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in better performance because more instructions can be processed each second . How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A core is a complete set of CPU components (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to perform its own FDE cycle . ​ A multi-core CPU has more than one set of components within the same CPU. How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can execute one instruction at a time , a dual-core processor can execute two instructions, and a quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously . ​ Therefore, a computer with more cores will have a higher performance because it can process more instructions at once . What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If one core is waiting for another core to finish processing, performance may not increase at all. ​ Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores , so it will not run any quicker on a multi-core computer. Pipelining What is pipelining? ​ Pipelining efficiently uses multiple cores or processors to perform different stages of the FDE cycle at the same time . Pipelining overlaps the processing of instructions to improve performance by increasing the amount of instructions that can be fetched, decoded and executed each second . ​ The first image to the right shows a processor not using pipelining whereby one instruction can only be fetched once the previous instruction has been fetched, decoded and executed. The second image shows how pipelining can be used to process multiple instructions during the same clock cycle . For example, in clock cycle 3 instruction X can be executed while instruction Y is decoded and instruction Z fetched. A simplified example of a processor not using pipelining. A simplified example of a processor using pipelining. What is the limitation of pipelining? ​ Certain instructions may not be able to be executed until other instructions have been fetched and decoded . This wait for other instructions may impact performance . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1b - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels 1a. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe the three levels of cache memory , including the storage size and relative speed of each level. [ 6 ] 1c. Describe what is meant by a ' cache hit ' and a ' cache miss '. [ 2 ] 1d. Describe two ways that more c ache memory will mean performance is higher . [ 4 ] 1e. Explain why most computers only have a small amount of cache memory. [ 1 ] Clock Speed 2a. What is clock speed ? What is it measured in? [ 2 ] 2b. Explain how a higher clock speed improves performance . [ 2 ] 2c. Explain the terms 'overclocking ' and 'underclocking ' and explain the effects of both on the performance of a computer. [ 4 ] ​ Number of Cores 3a. What is a core ? [ 2 ] 3b. Explain why a quad-core processor should have a higher performance than a dual-core processor . [ 3 ] 3c. Explain two reasons why having more cores doesn't necessarily mean the performance will be better . [ 2 ] ​ Pipelining 4a. What is pipelining ? How does pipelining affect performance ? [ 4 ] 1.1a - The CPU & FDE Cycle Theory Topics 1.2 - Processors

  • Python | Section 3 Practice Tasks | CSNewbs

    top Python - Section 3 Practice Tasks Task One: Square Number Create a program that asks the user to input a number and then prints the square of that number - to do this, multiply the number by itself . ​ Remember: Break up variables and parts of a sentence in a print line by using commas. Example solutions: Enter a number: 12 The square of 12 is 144 Enter a number: 7 The square of 7 is 49 Task Two: Multiplying Numbers X Example solutions: Create a program that asks the user to input two numbers (num1 and num2 ). Multiply the two numbers together and print the total . Remember: Break up integer variables in a print line by using commas between each part of the sentence. Enter number one: 7 Enter number two: 9 7 x 9 = 63 Enter number one: 8 Enter number two: 12 8 x 12 = 96 Task Three: Turning 65 Example solutions: Create a program to input how old the user will turn this year and then print the year they will turn 65 . ​ You could do this in just two lines but before trying that work out on paper the steps to calculating your own age you will turn 65. What steps did you take? Try to recreate those steps in Python. You might need to create another variable to make it easier. How old will you turn this year? 15 You will turn 65 in 2073 How old will you turn this year? 42 You will turn 65 in 2046 Task Four: Multiplication Table Let the user enter a number then print the first five multiplications in its times table. ​ This can be done more simply when you learn about for loops but for now you will need to multiply the number by 1 , then multiply it by 2 etc. ​ Try to make this program better by displaying the number and the value it is multiplied by in your print statements. Simple example solution: Enter a number: 8 8 16 24 32 40 Better example solution: Enter a number: 7 7 x 1 = 7 7 x 2 = 14 7 x 3 = 21 7 x 4 = 28 7 x 5 = 35 ⬅ 3b - Simple Calculations 4a - If Statements ➡

  • 6.1a - Impacts of Technology - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    6.1a: Impacts of Technology Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 What are the issues created by technology? As the use of computers and technological devices continues to rise every year, this increase brings with it a range of different types of issues . Categories of issues described on this page include: ​ Cultural issues Environmental issues Ethical issues Legal & Privacy issues Cultural Issues Culture relates to society and how different parts of the world vary in terms of computer and internet usage . The Digital Divide This term relates to the gap between those people who have access to modern digital technology (such as computers and the internet) and those who have limited access . 'Limited access' could be devices at home or shared devices or having lower-performance (cheaper) computers and low-speed internet connections. ​ The digital divide can be seen in different ways , such as: People in cities vs. People in rural areas . Younger people vs. Elderly people. Developed countries vs. Developing countries. The digital divide is an important ethical issue because digital technologies have led to numerous international benefits including boosted growth , improved product delivery , enhanced communication and increased opportunities . However, this impact is uneven and these positive impacts are mostly occurring in technologically-advanced regions such as North America , Western Europe and Japan . Regions like some nations in Africa and Central Asia have limited digital infrastructure and government instability , leading to poor internet speeds , high costs and limited resources . ​ Discussion Points: What do you think can be done to bridge the digital divide? Whose job is it to bridge the gap? Who will pay for the technology? Changes to Work The internet , the development of new technologies such as cloud storage and increased video communication have transformed the way that many businesses operate across the world. Staff may be able to work from home or access documents collaboratively outside of the traditional workplace, such as cafes or on public transport. ​ Some jobs have moved abroad to save costs, such as help centres for online issues. Tasks can be outsourced to freelancers in other countries where people are content to be paid less for their time and services. For example, some companies will hire temporary web developers from countries such as India to work for them for a lower salary than local workers. ​ Another change to work that technology has brought is the loss of jobs , especially low-skilled jobs such as factory workers that have seen their roles replaced by technology and automation . However, technology has also created millions of new jobs , including installing and maintaining the machines that replace other roles. Environmental Issues Environmental issues concern the natural world and the negative effects of producing , using and discarding computer systems and devices. Energy and Material Consumption In the past 30 years, the number of technological devices has increased astronomically and thousands of new devices are manufactured each day . These devices need to be assembled using a range of materials , including plastics , metals and some rarer elements and need a considerable amount of electrical power to run. Certain systems like web servers and data centres must be powered on all day , every day, which uses a large amount of energy . Pollution and Waste Generating the electricity to power computers creates pollution - an average PC could require up to 50% more energy per year than a fridge. Computers are difficult to recycle and discarded components can lead to land, water and air pollution due to harmful materials , such as lead and mercury , leaking into the environment. ​ Smartphone trends are also negative for the environment as new devices are released yearly , with minor upgrades that people buy to appear fashionable and up-to-date. To lessen the environmental impact, people should reuse and recycle their devices. Ethical Issues Ethics relates to what is considered right or wrong . Often this is subjective - people may have differing opinions on the issue. Drones Uses of drones: Filming and photography for television, movies and special events. Monitoring pollution levels in the atmosphere. Tracking and monitoring wildlife , such as rhino populations in Africa. Disaster zone response , such as searching for survivors following an earthquake. Delivery companies are developing drones to quickly deliver goods across cities. Drones are used by the military to target sites in other countries, such as American soldiers deploying surveillance drones in Syria. ​ Discussion Points: Should you need a licence to buy and fly a drone? Should drones be used to monitor the public? Like flying CCTV? Should drones be used to deliver items? Like Amazon packages? If a drone hits a plane and it crashes, what should the punishment be? A drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV ) that is remotely operated and can be used for a wide range of purposes. Self-Driving Cars Self-driving cars (also known as autonomous vehicles ) are currently in the development and testing stage with companies like Tesla and Amazon. Benefits of self-driving cars include: In theory, driving will be safer because cars are less likely to make mistakes that humans do and they can’t become distracted or tired . Self-driving cars should be more fuel-efficient because they take the most direct route to destinations and do not get lost. ‘Drivers’ in the car can perform other tasks instead of driving, such as work or planning. Autonomous vehicles could include trucks and vans to automate the delivery and freight industries . Trucks could drive overnight to deliver goods whereas currently, human drivers must take breaks every few hours. Drawbacks of self-driving cars include: Cars could still crash as code and software processes may fail. The technology is still in development and will be very expensive for the first few years when self-driving cars are available to purchase. Jobs may be lost such as delivery and truck drivers whose vehicles are equipped with self-driving technology. Other industries like motorway services and hotels may also be affected. ​ Discussion Points: Would you trust a car to drive itself? Who is to blame if a self-driving car crashes? The car maker? The people in the car? The software writers? What should happen to the people whose jobs are taken by self-driving vehicles? Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence (AI ) is the act of computers replacing humans to analyse data and make decisions . In recent years AI has become more common in the home and on devices like smartphones; assistants such as Siri and Alexa are prime examples of modern home AI. AI Chatbots like ChatGPT have become more popular in recent years but have lead to issues such as plagiarism , misinformation and breaking copyright laws . The weather today is cloudy. Benefits of AI include: Processes are sped up as computers can analyse large amounts of data much quicker than a human. AI can be used when a human is unavailable , such as using a symptom checker on the internet for a minor illness rather than booking and waiting for a doctor. Repetitive or time-consuming tasks can instead be completed by a computer , such as searching and sorting scientific data or generating ideas , images or audio from a prompt . Drawbacks of AI include: AI can store and process a lot of personal data , especially personal assistants like Alexa which are always listening for ‘wake words’. This data can be viewed by the company that develops it and could be hacked by attackers. AI is programmed by humans and mistakes in code could have disastrous consequences if the AI is used to make important decisions , such as military deployment. AI GPT tools like ChatGPT can give incorrect results , may use copyrighted material in their response and students may use it to submit work that is not their own . ​ Discussion Points: If a robot harms a human who is to blame? The robot? The programmer? The manufacturer? Us? Would you trust a walking, talking robot assistant in your home? Should ChatGPT be banned in schools or can it be helpful? Should AI make decisions for us? Legal & Privacy Issues Legal and privacy issues regard laws that have been introduced by the UK government to protect data, systems and networks from unauthorised access . See 11.2 for explanations about important computing legislation in the UK. Loss of Privacy & Hacking There has been a lot of criticism in the last few years about how internet companies and governments are using personal data to invade privacy and track civilians . Facebook was involved in a scandal with using personal data for reasons that were not the original intention. In reverse, WhatsApp and Apple have been criticised for encrypting messages sent by terrorists that police have been unable to track and read. Every week a new company seems to announce that its data has been hacked . Attackers are constantly using botnets and infected systems to crack poorly secured databases and attempting to phish individuals for usernames and passwords. In the past few years, major hacking breaches include Sony, Yahoo and TalkTalk. ​ Discussion Points: Should the UK government be able to see the websites you have visited in the last year? What should happen if a major company is hacked and bank details are stolen? Should they be fined? Pay customers? Prison? Should WhatsApp allow authorities to access encrypted messages? What if they know a terrorist is using it to communicate? Should the UK debate privacy laws before they go into place? Online Crime Unlawfully obtaining personal information and using it for identity theft or fraud . Harassment and threatening others on social media or private messages; blackmail . Cyber attacks are more common - see 3.8 for information about DOS attacks , IP spoofing , SQL injection and more. Sharing copyrighted material such as television programmes, music and video games. Distributing prohibited material such as drugs or weapons on the dark web. ​ See 6.1b for explanations about different laws that have been created to tackle online crime . The increased popularity of the internet and the rising number of users has led to a wave of online crime , taking many different forms, including:​ Q uesto's Q uestions 6.1a - Impacts of Technology: ​ Cultural Impacts 1a. What is the digital divide ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe 2 examples of how the digital divide can be seen . [ 2 ] ​ 2. Describe in detail 3 ways that technology has changed the way people work . [9 ] ​ Environmental Impacts 1. Describe the different ways that the increasing use of technology negatively impacts the environment . [ 5 ] ​ Ethical Impacts 1a. What is a drone ? [1 ] 1b. Make a list of all of the positive impacts and the negative impacts of using drones . You should have at least 3 on each side. [ 6 ] ​ 2. Describe 2 benefits of using self-driving cars and 2 negative consequences . [4 ] ​ 3. Describe how artificial intelligence can be used for good . [ 4 ] ​ Legal & Privacy Impacts 1. A hack on a bank has occurred. Describe what you think the impacts would be on the following groups of people: a. The customers . b. The bank managers . c. The general public . [ 6 ] ​ 2. Describe 4 different types of online crime . [ 8 ] 5.2 - Utility Software Theory Topics 6.1b - Legislation

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