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  • Python | 1d - Using Variables | CSNewbs

    top Python 1d - Using Variables Printing Variables Within Sentences Join sentences and variables together using a plus symbol (+ ). Joining strings together like this is called concatenation . name = "Marina" print( "Hello " + name + ", nice to meet you." ) = Hello Marina, nice to meet you. Remember to use speech marks for your printed statements but no speech marks for variable names . ​ You need to use the + symbol before and after each variable. direction = "north" country = "Wales" print ( "Have you been to the " + direction + " of " + country + "?" ) = Have you been to the north of Wales? Commas can be used an alternative to the + symbol but they will automatically add a space . day = "Saturday" print ( "My birthday is on a" + day + "this year." ) print ( "My birthday is on a" , day , "this year." ) = My birthday is on aSaturdaythis year. My birthday is on a Saturday this year. Using Variables Task 1 ( Pizza Toppings) Use a variable named topping1 and another named topping2. ​ Print a sentence that uses both variables names. Example solution: My favourite pizza is ham and mushroom. Printing Number Variables Within Sentences To join strings and number values then you must use a comma as a plus will not work: cookies = 4 print ( "Munch! There's only" , cookies , "left." ) = Munch! There's only 4 cookies left. You need to use a comma before and after each variable. Using Variables Task 2 ( Stars ) Make a variable named stars and set it to a large number. Print a sentence with the stars variable. Example solution: I think there are 827392012 stars in the sky! Using Variables Task 3 ( Age & Month) Use a variable named age and set it to your current age. Make a variable named month and set it to the month you were born. ​ Remember to use speech marks for text , e.g. month = "August" but no speech marks for numbers (your age). ​ Print a sentence that uses both variables names . Example solution: I am 14 and I was born in August. Using f-Strings Another method of using variables within a printed sentence is to use f-strings . ​ Type the letter f before your output and place your variable names in curly brackets - { } ​ Variables of any data type can be used with f-strings. name = "Tony Stark" alias = "Iron Man" print( f"Did you know {name} is actually {alias} ?" ) = Did you know Tony Stark is actually Iron Man? Using Variables Task 4 ( F-Strings) Create and give a value to three variables : movie_name actor year ​ Use an f-string to print a sentence that uses all three variables. Example solution: Did you know that Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix stars Daniel Radcliffe and was released in 2007? ⬅ 1c - Creating Variables Sec tion 1 Practice Tasks ➡

  • Key Stage 3 Python | Turtle | CSNewbs

    Python - #6 - Turtle Import the Turtle The turtle library stores all of the code to create and move an object called a turtle . ​ The turtle library must be imported into your Python program before you can use it to draw lines, shapes and colours . Create a new Python program and save the file as PythonTurtle . ​ Write import turtle as the first line of code. Basic Shapes The turtle can be controlled by writing how many pixels it should travel forward and the angle it should point left or right . Moving Forwards turtle.forward(100) will move the turtle forward by 100 pixels. ​ turtle.forward(200) will move the turtle forward by 200 pixels. ​ ​ ​ ​ When using the left command or the right command, the turtle won't actually move , but it will rotate by the number of degrees that you state. ​ For example, typing turtle.left(90) will point the turtle upwards . Rotating Left & Right Copy the code to the right to make the turtle draw a square. ​ Then try to make: A Rectangle A Triangle A Pentagon A Hexagon Square Rectangle Triangle Pentagon Hexagon Hint: To work out the angles, divide 360 by the number of sides. Using Loops You can use a for loop to repeat code . ​ This is especially helpfully with intricate shapes with many sides. ​ The code below will print a square but in only 3 lines instead of the 8 lines from task 2. This is the number of times the code underneath will be repeated . ​ Change it to a higher number to repeat it more often . Each line after the 'for num in range' line must be indented . ​ Press the tab key once on your keyboard to indent your code. Task 3 - Copy the code above to make the turtle draw a square using a loop. ​ Then try to make: A Heptagon An Octagon A Circle A Pentagram (5-sided Star) Square Heptagon Octagon Circle Pentagram Hint: To work out the angles, divide 360 by the number of sides. Advanced Features Choose a background colour turtle .bgcolor("red") Choose the line size and colour turtle.pensize(6) turtle.color("green") Fill a shape turtle.color("yellow") turtle.begin_fill() (put your turtle's directions in here) turtle.end_fill() ​ Lift the pen turtle.penup() turtle.pendown() Speed up/Slow down the turtle turtle.speed(speed=10) ​ Change the turtle's appearance turtle.shape("turtle") Other options include "circle" and "arrow". Task 4 - Use the code above to make: ​ A blue square on a red background. A yellow triangle on a pink background. Two different coloured circles - not touching each other. Three different shapes of three different colours - not touching each other. Complex Shapes Use everything that you have learned on this page to help you create more complex shapes. ​ You could try: ​ A Flower A Word (like your name - you will need to use the penup() and pendown() commands. A Christmas tree A Landscape (green ground, blue sky, yellow sun) ​ <<< Selection

  • Python | 9b - Number Handling | CSNewbs

    top Python 9b - Number Handling Rounding Numbers The round() command is used to round a value to a certain number of decimal places . ​ Type your variable into the round command brackets, add a comma and state the number of decimal places to round to. If you type only the variable , it will round the number to the nearest whole value . Practice Task 1 Ask the user to enter any large number. ​ Ask the user to enter another large number. ​ Divide the two numbers and print the answer to 3 decimal places. Example solution: Using Numbers as Strings The following techniques all require the integer to be converted into a string first using the str command. ​ Just like a string, you can shorten a variable to only display a certain length . Remember that Python starts at zero . You can select a specific digit in the same manner as when selecting characters in a string. If you want to use your variable as an integer again later you would need to convert it from a string to an integer using the int command. Again, reversing a number is the same as reversing a string. You can also use other string handling methods such as .startswith() or .endswith() Practice Task 2 Ask the user to enter a 10 digit number. ​ Select the 2nd and 8th digits and add them together. ​ Print the total. Example solution: ⬅ 9a - String Handling Section 9 Practice Tasks ➡

  • Scratch Maze Game | CSNewbs

    This walkthrough will show you how to create a maze game in Scratch . It is split into the following sections: ​ Creating the First Level Choosing the Main Character Animating & Moving the Main Character Back to the Start Adding Score & Time Making Enemies Adding More Levels Extensions Use the links to move between sections easily! 1. Creating the First Level The very first thing to do is to create the level in which our character will move around in! We are going to draw a background from scratch which our hero will run around in to get to the end. ​ Important parts of the pictures are highlighted in yellow ! 1. Select the blank Stage button in the button left to edit the background. Drawing the Background Challenge Task Anchor 1 2. Press on the Backdrops tab. This will show Scratch’s own paint editor on the right. 3. Use the line tool to create straight maze lines on the background. Use the slider at the bottom to increase the width of the line. Remember this is only the first level so don’t make it too difficult. 4. Create a start zone and an end zone with the rectangle tool and then fill them in with the fill bucket tool . You can also change the main background colour using the fill bucket tool. Remember to choose an appropriate level name in the text box at the top. Level Name Rectangle Tool Fill Bucket Tool Make your game more exciting by creating themed levels , like this park background. Other ideas might include a classroom, library or car park. Try switching up the start and end zones by using the circle tool or the line tool and the fill bucket . Come back to this challenge when you are ready to make more levels! 2. Choosing the Main Character Now that you have your first level designed we can make our hero character who is going to navigate the maze and try to get to the end. Picking the main character Anchor 2 1. A character is called a sprite . We will choose a sprite from Scratch’s sprite library . Click on the fairy icon to open the sprite menu. 2. I have selected the Animals category on the left menu. ​ I have chosen the Penguin sprite but choose whichever character you want. 3. Press the Costumes tab and check that your chosen sprite has at least two costumes . We will use these to create animation in the next section to make it look like the sprite is moving. 4. Now that we don’t need the cat anymore we can delete him by right-clicking on his icon and selecting delete . Shrink the Main Character down to size Shrink Tool 5. The sprite is too big for the level background and you will need to shrink them down . Click on the shrink button at the top of the program and then click on the sprite in the paint area to shrink them down. Remember how many times you clicked the sprite to shrink it. You will need to shrink both costumes the same number of times . Here I have shrunk my penguin by 17 clicks when I selected the shrink tool. You can compare the size of your costumes by looking at the image size beneath the icon (e.g. 40 x 53). Picture Size 6. You need to make sure that your sprite is in the centre of the grid otherwise it might cause trouble later when you try to move them. Click on the costume centre button in the top right (it looks like a crosshair ) and drag your sprite into the middle if it is not. Make sure that both costumes are in the centre . Also, give your costumes appropriate names , I have named mine Mr. Penguin 1 and Mr. Penguin 2. Costume Name Costume Centre 3. Animate & Move the Main Character Adding Animation Anchor 3 1. Click on your sprite icon in the bottom left and then on the Scripts tab in the top centre. We will begin using the script blocks and we need to start in the Events category with: ​ drag it over to the script area. ​ This script will run all the blocks that we place beneath it, when the flag is pressed to start the game. 1. 2. You can only add animation if the sprite you chose has at least two different costumes! 2. The second block we need is: ​ ​ the Control category. Every block that we put inside the forever loop block will repeat again and again . We want our character to switch between their costumes infinitely to make it look like they are always walking, which is why we use the forever loop. 3. Click on the Looks category and drag two... ​ ...inside of your forever loop . Use the drop down list (small black triangle on the costume block ) to make one block switch to your first costume and the other block switch to your second costume. 4. In the Control category, drag over two ​ ​ ​ blocks and place one after each of your ‘switch costume to ‘ blocks. 1 second is too long to wait so click on the 1 and change both to 0.5 instead (this is half a second). If you’ve got the code correct so far, when you press the green flag your character should be animated! Moving the Main Character 1. In the Events category drag a ​ into the script area. Change the button from space to ‘up arrow ’ (or any key you like) It is also popular for computer games to use the w key to move up. 2. Click on the Motion category and move over two blocks: ​ and ​ ​ Change the angle of direction from 90 (which is a right turn) to 0 (which is an upwards turn). Now you have just created code to make your character move upwards by ten steps when you press the up arrow! Once you have dragged the blocks when the up arrow is pressed, you can work out how to make your character move down, left and right ALL BY YOURSELF. ​ Add this code in now, before you move on . Rotate the Main Character If you press the green arrow and move your character around you might notice that it doesn't rotate when it moves. Click on the i in the top left of your sprite icon in the bottom left. There are three types of rotation to choose from. Select your preferred style by clicking on one of the three symbols. Full Rotation will turn your sprite up, down, left and right. Horizontal Rotation will only turn your sprite left and right. No Rotation will not turn your sprite at all. it will always appear in the same direction. Anchor 4 4. Back to the Start Starting in the right place We always want the main sprite to start in the green zone when the green flag is pressed to start the game. ​ First drag your sprite to the green zone . Then go to the Motion category and drag over: ...and connect it directly underneath the ​ ​ ​ block you dragged over earlier. Once you’ve added that line of code, click the green flag to make sure that the sprite starts where you want it to . If it doesn’t, then you can change the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) co-ordinates by clicking on the white boxes and changing the values. Back to the start if touching the walls 1. Drag over and connect together the two blocks below: 2. Drag over the two blocks below, put the blue one inside the other and then put them both inside the forever loop : 3. Change the co-ordinates in the blue block you just added so that it matches the same co-ordinates as the block to make the sprite start at the green zone . 4. Now to add the wall detection code! In the Sensing section, drag this block over... ...and put it inside the top of the ‘if then‘ block . ​ Make sure that you put it between the 'if' and 'then' and not underneath. 5. Click once on the box in the ‘touching colour ‘ block and then click the wall or obstacle you want the player to avoid, Now is a good idea to play your game and make sure you can get to the end without being teleported back to the start. If your game is impossible you will need to edit the background – click on the stage icon in the bottom left then the Backdrops tab and edit the walls. Anchor 5 5. Adding Time & Score Recording the Time 1. Click on the Stage icon in the bottom left, we will create new code in the Scripts tab of the stage. DO NOT click the character sprite! Click on the Data category and choose Make a Variable . ​ A variable is something that can change . Call your new variable Time . Adding a Score - The Number of Restarts 2. From the Events category drag: ​ ​ ​ ...then look in the Data category and connect this underneath: ​ ​ ​ ...but it should say Time instead of 'variable'. ​ This code makes the time start at 0 when the game begins. 3. Now we need a loop that increases our variable called Time by 1 every second. First drag over a forever loop : ​ ​ ​ Then place inside of it two blocks: ​ ​ ​ ​ Make sure it says Time instead of variable. ​ Now press the green flag to see the timer go up. 1. In the Data section click on Make a Variable and give it an appropriate name like Restarts . This variable will count how many times we have touched a wall and had to start again. 2. Firstly, go back to the Scripts area for your character – click on the sprite of your main character in the bottom left then the Scripts tab. You need to add two blocks from the Data category: ​ ​ ​ Change variable to Restarts and place it directly underneath the flag. ​ ​ ​ Change variable to Restarts again and place this code directly after the 'go to ' block inside the loop. ​ Now whenever you touch the wall you restart and it records it in the variable called Restarts. 6. Making Enemies Anchor 6 1. Select the fairy icon in the New sprite section to open the Scratch sprite library. 2. From the sprite library choose your enemy . I have selected the polar bear because it fits with my penguin. 3. Select the shrink tool at the top of the program and click on the enemy . Then drag them to where you want them to start . 4. Click on the sprite icon of your enemy then select the Scripts tab. Drag and connect two blocks: 5. From the Control category grab a: ...and place it after the ‘go to ‘ block. Now we will make our enemy glide from his start position to somewhere on our level again and again. Move the enemy to where you want it to go to then add: ...inside the forever loop. Drag another ‘glide ‘ block and place it underneath but change those co-ordinates to the same as the one underneath the the ‘when green flag clicked‘ block. ​ This code makes the enemy move backwards and forwards forever. 6. Make your main character return to the start if they touch the enemy. ​ Click on your main character sprite in the bottom left and then the Scripts tab. ​ You need to copy the exact same code you made earlier to see if the main character is touching the wall , but this time you need to use: ​ ​ ​ ...instead of the touching colour block. ​ Click on the box in the block and select your Main Character . ​ 7. New Levels Anchor 7 Coming Soon To be added soon. This concludes the walkthrough for a Scratch maze game! Try a combination of the suggestions below to add complexity to your game: ​ Using ‘say ‘ or ‘think ‘ blocks in the Looks category to make your sprites say things at certain points (like at the start of a new level). Making your game harder by speeding up enemies in later levels (you could change the number of seconds it takes to glide ) Adding more enemies that only appear in harder levels. Setting a time limit – instead of having your time begin at 0 and increasing by 1 every second, have it start at 30 and decrease by 1 every second. Extensions Anchor 8

  • 2.4a - Programming & Pseudocode | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 2.4a: Programming & Pseudocode Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.4a - Programming & Pseudocode: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 2.3 - Software Development Theory Topics 2.4b - Assembly Language

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 2.2 - Applications Software | CSNewbs

    2.2: Applications Software Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What is applications software? Don't confuse applications software and apps . Apps generally have a single use, such as Angry Birds or the flashlight tool on a phone. ​ Applications Software can be used for a number of different functions depending on the user's needs and their purpose. Productivity Software This is general use software for completing tasks accurately and efficiently . Key examples include word processors (e.g. Microsoft Word or Google Docs), presentation software (e.g. Microsoft PowerPoint or Google Slides) and web browsers (e.g. Microsoft Edge or Google Chrome). ​ Email applications (e.g. Microsoft Outlook or Gmail) are beneficial to organisations because staff can send information to many customers at once which is a simpler and less costly method of communication than something like sending letters or leaflets in the mail. Emails can also include attachments of important documents and include multimedia elements like images and videos to make communication more interesting . Databases and Spreadsheets ​ Database tables and spreadsheets can store both numerical and textual data ready for analysis. Examples include simple database tables and financial spreadsheets of a company's profits this year. Microsoft Access is an example of database software that uses tables and Microsoft Excel is an example of spreadsheet software. Data can be sorted numerically or alphabetically for both software types but graphs can be created from spreadsheets to visualise data . ​ When using spreadsheets (or databases) records can be locked ('record locking' ) so that only one person can make edits at any one time. Edits will be saved before unlocking the file. This will stop data being incorrectly overwritten and will ensure that the data in the spreadsheet is up-to-date, accurate and fit for purpose. ​ An advantage of databases over spreadsheets is that data can be atomised - stored in separate tables but linked through relationships. Development Tools These are tools for programmers who are creating or modifying software . An integrated development environment ( IDE ) is software used to create and edit programs. An IDE features a number of tools including: ​ A translator is a program that converts one type of language into another. A compiler is a type of translator that converts instructions into machine code (binary). A debugger is used to test code and display errors . ​ Other development tools aid programmers with developing and maintaining websites and apps for phones / tablets. has been used to create and update this website. Business Software This is specialist software for businesses , often made bespoke for an organisation. One example of business software is design packages such as CAD / CAM (C omputer-A ided D esign / C omputer-A ided M anufacturing). This is the use of software to design and construct products . Workers such as manufacturers and dentists use this type of software. ​ Another type of business software is project management software that allows teams of workers to collaborate and divide projects into manageable tasks. Expert systems use large databases for automatic decision making , such as medical diagnosis programs . Further examples of business software, such as Management Information Systems (MIS), can be found in 3.5 . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.2 - Applications Software: ​ 1. State four different kinds of productivity software and briefly describe how each could be used . For example: "Word processors can be used to type up a letter in an office or write an essay for school." [8 ] ​ 2. Describe two differences between database and spreadsheet software. [2 ] ​ 3a. What is an Integrated Development Environment ? [1 ] 3b. Describe three tools used in an IDE. [6 ] 4. Giving brief examples of how they can be used, state four different types of business software . [8 ] 5. Suggest how a website design company could use each of the three types of applications software (Productivity Software , Development Tools and Business Software ). [ 6 ] 2.1 - Types of Software Topic List 2.3 - Utility Software

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 3.2 - Virtualisation | CSNewbs

    3.2 - Virtualisation Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What is virtualisation? Virtualisation describes the creation of a virtual version of a device, software or server. Storage virtualisation combines multiple storage devices so that they appear to be just one device. Server virtualisation allows one physical server to host multiple virtual machines, each running separately. Virtual Client Think back to the hypervisor from 3.1 . A virtual client is a full desktop environment where the processing happens remotely . For example, where an operating system is managed and hosted centrally but displayed locally on a different computer (dumb client). ​ A problem with virtual clients is that users will be unable to work if network connectivity is lost, and an increased load on the server might result in poor performance for each client. ​ A common use of virtualisation is in testing applications within a secure environment before they are used with the main system. Virtual Clients Benefits & Drawbacks of Virtualisation Benefits of virtualisation: ​ Costs are cheaper in the long-term because money is saved by not purchasing multiple physical devices . Money is also saved due to less cabling and lower power consumption . ​ If set up efficiently, it can be used for higher performance at a lower cost - "Do more with less" . ​ Programs can be tested in a secure environment before main-system deployment. ​ Simplified response to recover after a disaster because only the server needs to be fixed. Drawbacks of virtualisation: ​ If not set up efficiently, users could face serious performance issues , as fewer servers do more work. ​ If a single physical system fails , the impact will be greater . ​ Initial set up is complex , requires technical knowledge and can cost a lot. ​ Easier for hackers to take more information at once as the data is stored in the same place. Cloud Technology 'The cloud' is storage that is accessed through a network , primarily the internet. A cloud server is an example of storage virtualisation as data may be stored across multiple physical devices. There are three different types of cloud storage: Private cloud is where a business will have its own data centre that can be accessed by employees. This allows for flexible and convenient data storage and gives the business control over data management and security . Users of the private cloud will not usually have to pay individually for access - but the company will need to spend a lot of money on set up and maintenance . Public cloud uses third-party service providers such as Google Drive or DropBox to provide storage over the internet . Public cloud is usually a pay-for-use service , where businesses will pay for specific amounts that they need. Data management and data security is maintained by the cloud provider and the business is dependent on them providing constant access and deploying effective security measures. Hybrid cloud uses a mix of on-site storage (private cloud) and third-party (public cloud) services . Organisations can move workloads between private and public clouds as their specific needs and costs change . A benefit of hybrid cloud is that it gives an organisation more flexibility and data storage options. As an example, a company could use on-site or private cloud storage to hold sensitive information and third-party, public cloud services to hold less important data . Q uesto's Q uestions 3.2 - Virtualisation: 1. What is the difference between server and storage virtualisation ? [ 2 ] 2. What is a virtual client ? [ 1 ] ​ 3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using virtualisation. [16 ] ​ 4. Describe the differences between private , public and hybrid cloud storage. [6 ] 3.1 - Server Types Topic List 3.3 - Network Characteristics

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 4.1 - Communication Skills | CSNewbs

    4.1 - Communication Skills Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Communication skills are vital for anybody working within the IT industry. Employees will need to communicate with other members of their team and with those who encounter issues with their computer systems. Interpersonal Skills Communication is not just through speaking to another person, behaviour is also important. Employees should sit up straight in their chairs to show interest and eye contact should be maintained when speaking to another person or listening in a meeting. It is important to speak clearly so that others can understand what you are trying to say. Verbal Communication Employees should know when to use informal and formal language appropriately. For example, formal language should be used in meetings as it is a work environment . ​ Employees should think carefully about when to use technical terms . Technical terminology should be used when discussing issues with technicians but simplified explanations should be given to customers who may be inexperienced with their systems. Questioning Techniques Questioning is used to uncover problems in order to solve them . Closed questions will be direct and prompt a short, often one-word answer, such as "How many times have you tried to log in?". ​ Open questions don't have an obvious answer and may elicit an opinion , such as "Why are you using Internet Explorer instead of Google Chrome?". ​ Avoid leading questions - where you expect a certain response from the answerer, such as "Is the system always this slow?" Written Communication Again this form of communication can be formal - such as a letter to apply for a job - or informal - like sending a text or instant message to a team member. ​ There are a number of considerations to take before deciding whether communication should be formal or informal. For example, if the communication is between peers or external agencies (such as other companies or customers), any policies the organisation has in place and whether the communication will be legally recorded (such as saving all email correspondence). Barriers to Communication There are several reasons why a messages between people may be received incorrectly . ​ For example noise , language (not necessarily different languages but using technical terms) and physical barriers (i.e. learning difficulties or disabilities such as deafness). Another barrier is distraction - an email may be delayed because an employee is distracted by social media or other co-workers. Phones should also be turned off or to silent during meetings. Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1 - Communication Skills: 1. Describe 3 interpersonal actions that an employee should follow when speaking or listening to other team members. [ 3 ] 2. Explain when an employee should use technical terms and when they should simplify their explanations . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Describe the difference between closed , open and leading questions , giving an example of each. [6 ] ​ 4. Describe 3 things that should be considered when deciding between formal or informal written communication . [3 ] ​ 5. Describe 3 different barriers to successful communication . [3 ] 3.5 - Business Systems Topic List 4.2 - Communication Technology

  • HTML Guide 2 - Essential Tags | CSNewbs

    2. Creating Essential Tags HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: What is a tag ? HTML uses tags to define the content of a webpage . ​ A tag uses angle brackets - they look just like my teeth... ​ Some examples of tags are and and ​ ​ ​ Most tags have a start tag and an end tag . The actual content is written in between the tags . For example : ​ The p tag is used to write a paragraph ​ Notice that the end tag uses a forward slash . < > Essential Tags There are three tags that are essential for every HTML web page : ​ - This tag declares the start and the end of your html web page. - The head is the part of the web page that the user will not see. - The body holds all of the content of the web page (text, images, video etc.) ​ Don't forget to use backslash for the end tags : / Use the image on the right to add the three essential tags (and their end tags) to your document. Now it is time to add something we can actually see! Text tags are up next. 1. Setup HTML Guide 3. Text Tags

  • 3.1 - Data vs Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    3.1 - Data vs. Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The terms 'data ' and 'information ' are often used interchangeably but they do not mean the same thing . The term 'data ' refers to unprocessed facts or statistics that have no context . ​ For example, 53% is data - it is a statistic that has no context. The term 'information ' refers to data that has been processed , organised and structured into context . ​ For example, 53% of pumpkin stock was sold in 2019 is information - it is data that has been given context (meaning). Data Processing Information Q uesto's Q uestions 3.1 - Data vs. Information: ​ 1. Describe , using examples , the difference between data and information . [4 ] 2.4 - Information Management 3.2 & 3.3 - Information Categories Topic List

  • Key Stage 3 Python | Inputs | CSNewbs

    Python - #3 - Inputs 1. Asking Questions Input means to enter data into a program. ​ Use the input command to ask a question. ​ You must save the answer into a suitably named variable using the = symbol. Task 1 - Create a new Python program and save the file as ​ Use the picture to help you ask what someone's name is. Run the program and type your name. When you run the program (F5) you can type your answer on any question line in the Python Shell . 2. Asking more Questions There is no limit to how many questions you can ask in Python. It is the most important way to interact with the user of your program. Task 2 - Ask two more questions on topics of your choice. 3. Using Variables in a Sentence When we have printed the answers so far, they have not been very informative! ​ You can print variables together with sentences so that they mean more. ​ Use a comma ( , ) between variables and sentences . Task 3 - Use the pictures to help you add commas and sentences to your program to be more informative. BONUS: After I took the screenshot of my code I added in print lines in the two blanks spaces that print a line of dashes. Try to do the same to make your program easier to read. 4. Using Integers An integer is a whole number . ​ When you are asking a question that you know will have a number for an answer , you need to add int ( before your input. ​ Don't forget to add double close brackets at the end of the question line ! Task 4 - Underneath your previous questions (don't delete anything) ask 2 questions that will have numbers for answers. You must use int ( - see the image for help. Challenge Programs Use everything that you have learned on this page to help you create these programs... ​ Challenge Task 1 - Funny Food Create a new Python program. Save it as ' ' Add a comment at the top with your name and the date. Create a program that asks two questions, one for their favourite colour and one for their favourite food. Print a funny sentence using both of their answers. ​ BONUS : Try to use only one print line. ​ Remember: Break up variables in a print line by using commas. ​ When you run it, it could look something like this: Challenge Task 2 - Trivia Question Create a new Python program. Save is as ' ' Add a comment at the top with your name and the date. Create a program that asks the user a trivia question of your choice. Print the correct answer AND their answer. ​ BONUS : Use only one print line. BONUS : Try to use only two lines in total . ​ Remember: Break up variables in a print line by using commas. ​ When you run it, it could look something like this: Challenge Task 3 - Getting to School Create a new Python program. Save it as ' ' Add a comment at the top with your name and the date. Create a program that asks two questions, one for how they get to school and one for how long it takes. Don't forget - use int( and then double close brackets for a number! Print an appropriate response that uses both of their answers. ​ BONUS : Use two separate input lines. BONUS : Try to use only one print line . ​ Remember: Break up variables in a print line by using commas. ​ When you run it, it could look something like this: <<< #2 Variables #4 Calculations >>>

  • 3.2 - Packets & Switching - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.2: Data Packets & Switching Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a data packet? When sending data across a network, files are broken down into smaller parts called data packets . ​ Whole files are too large to transfer as one unit so data packets allow data to be transferred across a network quickly . ​ Each packet of data is redirected by routers across networks until it arrives at its destination. Data packets may split up and use alternative routes to reach the destination address. ​ When all the packets have arrived at the destination address the data is reassembled back into the original file. Contents of a Data Packet Data packets contain six distinct pieces of data which are used to redirect the packets towards the destination address. Packet Switching vs. Circuit Switching The key difference is that a circuit-switched network sends data along the same route . A packet-switched network sends data packets along different routes . Packet Switching With a packet-switched network the data is split into packets . The data packets are transmitted over a network and may take different routes to its destination. When all the packets have arrived the data is reassembled . The Internet is an example of a packet-switching network. Advantages of Packet Switching: Transmission is more secure as it is harder for a hacker to intercept complete data because it can take different routes . If a network device fails the data packets can take an alternative route . Data packets can be sent efficiently and individually across less busy routes . Disadvantages of Packet Switching: ​ Reassembling the data takes longer because packets may arrive out of order . It is less reliable than circuit switching as some data packets may not reach the destination (this is called packet loss ). Circuit Switching When data is transmitted over a circuit-switched network all of the data takes the same route to the destination address in one continuous stream . The data is quickly reassembled at the destination because it is already in the correct order . The old telephone system is an example of a circuit-switched network. Advantages of Circuit Switching: ​ Reassembling the data is quick because the packets arrive in the order that they were sent. It is more reliable than packet-switching because data is sent in one continuous stream . The transmission is fast and should encounter fewer errors - once the connection has been securely established . Disadvantages of Circuit Switching: Less secure as hackers could intercept the data and more easily access the data as it all takes the same route. Establishing a connection takes time to set up. If any device fails on the route then the whole connection breaks and data transfer will be incomplete. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.2 - Data Packets & Switching: ​ 1. Draw the data packet diagram and label all 6 pieces of information . [ 6 ] ​ 2a. Describe how packet switching works . [3 ] 2b. Describe the advantages of packet switching . [3 ] 2c. Describe the disadvantages of packet switching . [2 ] ​ 3a. Describe how circuit switching works . [3 ] 3b. Describe the advantages of circuit switching . [3 ] 3c. Describe the disadvantages of circuit switching . [3 ] 3.1 - Network Characteristics Theory Topics 3.3 - Network Topology

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