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  • 1.5 - WWW Technologies | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.5 - WWW Technologies Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The internet is a of . global network interconnected networks ​ The ( ) is as the internet. It is a , using protocols such as to . world wide web WWW not the same way of accessing information HTTPS view web pages ​ There are three types of : world wide web technologies Internet Intranet Extranet The i internet s a global network of interconnected networks . ​ The internet is and users have . public open access ​ ​ Examples of use: Accessing to and . Businesses may use web pages to their products and allow customers to items. web pages shop watch videos advertise purchase An intranet is a that is only (e.g. members of a business or school). private network accessible to authorised users Intranets are and users have . private closed access ​ Examples of use: often use an intranet to to that displays information for teachers and students (such as or ). might use an intranet for employees to see and or for because it can be . Because an intranet is a secured online area , schools log in test results upcoming events Businesses sales performance data communication accessed remotely An extranet is a private network that is but provides . accessible using the internet access only to authorised users ​ Extranets are and users have . private shared access ​ Example of use: (like booking.com) use an extranet to allow hotel owners to to access and update their information. Hotel booking companies log in via the internet Network Characteristics When connecting to there are several that a user must consider:​ WWW technologies characteristics Speed Speed refers to how quickly data can be accessed . For example, an extranet is the slowest network to use because it must be accessed through the internet first. Security Security relates to how likely the data will be kept secure . An intranet is more secure than the internet because only authorised users can log in. Access Levels Access levels , or permissions , refers to who can see what, in terms of data and files . Resources on an intranet can be set so that only certain users can view them. Accessibility This characteristic relates to how available the data is . For example, the internet can be accessed on any network-enabled device, at any time . uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - WWW Technologies: ​ Explain the difference between the and the . [ ] 1. internet world wide web 2 ​ Describe each of the . You must mention whether they are and what they have. 2. 3 types of WWW technology private or public type of access Internet a. Intranet b. Extranet [ ] c. 2 each ​ Describe at least of how each of the could be . [ ] 3. one example 3 types of WWW technology used 6 ​ Describe the in terms of each of the . You need to think carefully about this; the descriptions under each icon above can help you with certain answers. To start, describe the of an . [ ] 4. 3 WWW technologies 4 network characteristics speed, security, access levels and accessibility intranet 12 each 1.4 - Internet Connections Topic List 1.6 - Information Formats

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.5 - Communication Hardware | CSNewbs

    1.5: Communication Hardware Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 The devices on this page are used to , allowing to be . create or link together networks data sent between computer systems Hub A hub from a connected device and . receives data packets transfers a copy to all connected nodes Switch A switch , processes them and pecifically listed in the of the packet. receives data packets transfers them on to the device s destination address Modem Modems are used to . send data across the telephone network The can so a modem is used to into an . telephone lines only transfer analog signals convert a computer's digital data analog signal Another at the receiving end. modem converts the signal back to a digital format Router Routers are used to . transfer data packets between networks Data is sent from network to network on the internet towards the listed in the data packet. destination address A router stores the and uses to calculate the . address of each computer on the network routing tables quickest and shortest path Wireless Access Point (WAP) Provides a link . It creates a that allows WiFi enabled devices to connect to a wired network. between wireless and wired networks wireless local area network Combined Device Also known as a , this provides the (e.g modem, router, switch and/or wireless access point) . hybrid device functionality of multiple communication devices in a single device They can be than a single device but are - if the routing part of the device fails it might as a switch / wireless access point etc. more expensive more adaptable still be able to function ​ However, you will see an increased performance from a standalone device rather than a combined one as standalone devices have more complex features (e.g. VPN support). Network Interface Card (Network Adapter) A (often shorted to ) is an that is . Network Interface Card NIC internal piece of hardware required for the computer to connect to a network It used to be a separate expansion card but now it is commonly (and known as a ). built directly into the motherboard network adapter allow wireless network connection. Wireless network interface cards uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - Communication Hardware: [ ] What is the ? 1. difference between a hub and a switch 2 [ ] Explain how a works. 2. modem 3 [ ] Explain the . 3. purpose of a router 2 [ ] What is a ( )? 4. Wireless Access Point WAP 2 [ ] Describe what is meant by a ' '. Give and of using a combined device. 5. combined device one advantage one disadvantage 3 1.4 - Connectivity 1.6 - Hardware Troubleshooting Topic List

  • 1.6 - Information Formats | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.6 - Information Formats Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The following formats are used to on the . display information internet Web Pages Web pages can be used for a diverse range of purposes including products, , (online shopping). advertising reporting information displaying images and eCommerce ​ There are two types of web page: Static web page contain content that is and . Static web pages pre-built remains the same each time the page is loaded ​ Static web pages are and and ; they use basic HTML. cheaper easier to create load quicker It can be changed by the site editor but will for everyone who has access to it, such as a classic promotional website for a small company. appear the same Dynamic web page are and can . Dynamic web pages generated when they are loaded appear different to different users Dynamic web pages are but they can be to whoever is viewing the site; they are written in server-side languages like PHP. harder to code linked to databases to allow them to show personalised content ​ The Amazon homepage is an example of a dynamic web page as personalised deals based on previous user history will be shown if you are logged in with an account. Blogs Blogs are used to with like-minded individuals, such as those who enjoy the same . , and other businesses also use blogs as a way of with what they have done or what they are working on. Blogs can feature such as text, images, videos and links to other sites. share information hobbies or beliefs Charities game developers updating their customer base multimedia Advantages of Blogs Disadvantages of Blogs ✓ Share information with followers in the format of text, images and video . ​ ✓ Blogs and vlogs can unite people with similar interests , such as a cookery blog or travel vlog. Takes a lot of to create posts, especially if need to be edited before posting. Potential customers could be lost if blogs aren't . X effort and time videos updated regularly ​ X It can be difficult to build up a customer base directly from a blog. Posts must be engaging , researched and correct . Podcasts A podcast is a , usually on a certain topic such as sports or gaming that can be for the user. Spotify and Apple Music have a wide library of podcasts. downloadable audio file listened to when convenient Advantages of Podcasts Disadvantages of Podcasts ✓ Podcasts are not (usually) recorded live , so they can be edited and uploaded at a certain time each week. ​ ✓ Podcasts can be listened to when convenient for the user, so they can't 'miss' it and can catch up when is best for them. ​ ✓ Podcasts are becoming more and more popular , so the possible audience base is growing each year. Celebrity guests are one way to entice more listeners. Takes to record a podcast, especially if they need to be to add in music or sound effects or to . X time edited remove mistakes ​ X It can be difficult to build up an audience directly from a podcast. Podcasts should be on a topic that interests people and spoken in an engaging way. Streamed Audio & Video Streaming is the process of in a . This allows the user to the video / audio , without having to wait for the file to download entirely. receiving video / audio data continuous flow access immediately For example, the BBC provide for their radio shows and BBC iPlayer allows users to watch that previously aired. is a widely-used streamed video platform and is a popular streamed audio service. live radio streaming online 'catch up' programs YouTube Spotify Advantages of Streamed Media Disadvantages of Streamed Media ✓ Streaming does not require data to be downloaded entirely before use - users can watch / listen as soon as the connection starts . ​ ✓ Streaming is harder for users to share than downloading a file . Netflix uses this as a form of piracy protection . Streaming requires so users may suffer on . X high bandwidth performance issues slower devices and networks ​ X Streaming requires a constant network connection compared to downloadable media which can be used when offline / outside. Social Media Channels Social media channels provide a on users in an informal space. Organisations can through user . like views, likes and shares provide an insight to . huge amount of data receive feedback posts and comments Real-time statistics user opinion ​ Social media channels include traditional sites such as and as well as business and such as . , such as , are increasingly popular for users to discuss similar hobbies and interests such as politics, gaming and healthy eating. Facebook Twitter recruitment platforms LinkedIn Discussion boards and forums Reddit Advantages of Social Media Disadvantages of Social Media ✓ Social media can increase a business' online presence as it is online 24/7 for users to comment and interact with posts. ​ ✓ Posts can be shared between users and their contacts, allowing a post to 'go viral' and be seen by potentially millions of viewers . ​ ✓ Posts can be shared in different information styles such as text , images , video or hyperlinks to other websites. ​ ✓ Businesses can use social media to communicate with their customer s , such as direct messages on Facebook if a customer is unhappy. Businesses may need to to , update posts and remove spam. X hire a social media manager interact with customers ​ X Negative posts can be shared and spread very quickly , such as if a customer complains about how a business treated them poorly. ​ X Businesses must be cautious about what they post , to not accidentally offend others and damage their reputation . Emails Emails can be used to provide information to a of people . A company may use an email to , inform potential customers of a or based on previous interactions. large amount almost instantly advertise new products marketing promotion target specific users Advantages of Emails Disadvantages of Emails ✓ Faster (almost instant) and cheaper (usually free) to send an email compared to traditional letters . ​ ✓ Files can be attached to the email, such as images, videos or forms to complete. ​ ✓ An audit trail can be kept, recording communication between the company and its customers. ​ ✓ Emails can be sent, delivered and read at the user's convenience and to any internet-enabled device across the world . An to open and read the email. Larger attachments may not open on mobile devices. X internet connection is required ​ X Malware can spread through email attachments. Phishers use emails to gain access to personal information and account details . ​ X Some attachments sent via email may be unreadable on different devices / operating systems. ​ X Emails may automatically go into the spam / junk folder and be deleted without being read . Document Stores allow users to . Common services are , and Microsoft's . Storing documents in the cloud allows users to edit and and . Many organisations offer cloud storage space for up to a certain amount before charging customers for more data. Document stores store online files in cloud storage Google Drive Dropbox OneDrive access them from any location with an internet connection opens up opportunities for collaboration free ​ Document stores are very and replace the need for portable storage devices like USB sticks. Teachers can use documents stores to share resources with other staff in a . convenient for users school Documents stores can only be accessed with an internet connection so files will be during maintenance or network failure. Users rely on the cloud hosting provider, such as Microsoft and Google to keep the and . unavailable data secure available RSS Feeds RSS Feeds (short for ) allow users to from their favourite websites. It is a web feed that whenever a subscribed site releases new information. For example, the BBC used to post updates for important news headlines which appeared in a subscribed user's RSS feed. Rich Site Summary subscribe to updates updates As of 2020 and it is . most browsers no longer have built-in RSS functionality rarely used uesto's uestions Q Q 1.6 - Information Formats: ​ Describe the difference between . [ ] 1. static and dynamic web pages 4 ​ For each type of describe its . 2. information format advantages and disadvantages Blogs [ ] a. 8 Podcasts [ ] b. 8 Streamed Audio / Video [ ] c. 8 Social Media [ ] d. 8 Emails [ ] e. 8 ​ Explain how could be used by . [ ] 3. document stores organisations and individuals 4 ​ Explain what an is and how an . [ ] 4. RSS feed organisation could use it 3 1.5 - WWW Technologies Topic List 1.7 & 1.8 - Internet Pros & Cons

  • Computer Science Newbies

    C omputer S cience Newb ie s CSNewbs is aimed at GCSE and A-Level Computer Science students in the UK . ​ The site is used in the UK and internationally by thousands of students each week . ​ Use the tabs at the top or click the search icon to find exactly what you need. ​ Click the ? icon to read frequently asked questions and information about CSNewbs . Quick links to popular topics on CSNewbs: Python You are viewing the mobile version of CSNewbs. The site may appear better on a desktop or laptop . Eduqas GCSE Topics OCR Cambridge Technicals Level 3 IT CSNewbs last updated: Wednesday, 23rd September, 2020 You are viewing the desktop version of CSNewbs. Have you tried it on mobile ?

  • 1.5 - Performance - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.5: Performance Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + The system is affected by main factors: performance of a computer three Cache Memory What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is for . temporary storage frequently accessed data How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is , meaning that it can provide . closer to the CPU than RAM data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because can be stored and . repeatedly used instructions accessed faster What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is so most computers only have a . costly, small amount Clock Speed What is clock speed? is the measure of . Clock speed how quickly a CPU can process instructions ​ Clock speed is . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of . measured in Gigahertz (GHz) 3.5 GHz This means it can perform . 3.5 billion cycles a second How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in because . better performance more instructions can be processed each second How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A is a (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to . core complete set of CPU components perform its own FDE cycle ​ A has within the same CPU. multi-core CPU more than one set of components How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can , a processor can and a . execute one instruction at a time dual-core execute two instructions, quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously ​ Therefore, a will have a because it can . computer with more cores higher performance process more instructions at once What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If to finish processing, at all. one core is waiting for another core performance may not increase ​ , so it will on a multi-core computer. Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores not run any quicker uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels What is ? [ 1a. cache memory 2 ] Describe that 1b. two ways more c will mean . [ ache memory performance is higher 4 ] Explain why only have a memory. [ 1c. most computers small amount of cache 1 ] Clock Speed What is ? What is it in? [ 2a. clock speed measured 2 ] Explain how a . [ 2b. higher clock speed improves performance 2 ] Explain the terms ' ' and ' ' and explain the of both on the of a computer. [ 2c. overclocking underclocking effects performance 4 ] ​ Number of Cores What is a ? [ 3a. core 2 ] Explain why a should have a than a . [ 3b. quad-core processor higher performance dual-core processor 3 ] Explain two reasons why having the . [ 3c. more cores doesn't necessarily mean performance will be better 2 ] 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.6 - Buses & Instruction Sets Theory Topics

  • 1.5 - Performance - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.5: Performance Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + The system is affected by main factors: performance of a computer three Cache Memory: Size & Levels What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is for . temporary storage frequently accessed data ​ Cache memory is because it is than other types of memory like . very quick to access closer to the CPU RAM What are the 3 levels of cache memory? is the smallest level ( ) but it is also the . Level 1 cache less than a megabyte fastest is than level 1 ( ) but slightly slower. Level 2 cache larger up to 8 megabytes is located of the CPU core which makes it than the first two levels but it is much ( ). Level 3 cache outside slower larger up to 50 megabytes How does cache memory work? ​ When the , it looks 1 cache, and . If the data has been , this is called a ' '. If the data is then the CPU searches in which takes - this is called a ' '. CPU searches for data first in level then level 2 then level 3 found cache hit not found RAM instead more time cache miss How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is , meaning that it can provide . closer to the CPU than RAM data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because can be stored and . repeatedly used instructions accessed faster ​ will a computer's performance as data can be . Larger level 1 and level 2 cache sizes improve accessed extremely quickly What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is so most computers only have a . costly, small amount ​ Multiple will result in (delay) as information is accessed which is further away from the CPU. cache misses data latency from RAM Clock Speed What is clock speed? is the measure of . Clock speed how quickly a CPU can process instructions ​ Clock speed is . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of . measured in Gigahertz (GHz) 3.5 GHz This means it can perform . 3.5 billion cycles a second How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in because . better performance more instructions can be processed each second How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A is a (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to . core complete set of CPU components perform its own FDE cycle ​ A has within the same CPU. multi-core CPU more than one set of components How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can , a processor can and a . execute one instruction at a time dual-core execute two instructions, quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously ​ Therefore, a will have a because it can . computer with more cores higher performance process more instructions at once What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If to finish processing, at all. one core is waiting for another core performance may not increase ​ , so it will on a multi-core computer. Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores not run any quicker uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels What is ? [ 1a. cache memory 2 ] Describe the of , including the and of each level. [ 1b. three levels cache memory storage size relative speed 6 ] 1c. Describe what is meant by a ' cache hit ' and a ' cache miss '. [ 2 ] Describe that 1d. two ways more c will mean . [ ache memory performance is higher 4 ] Explain why only have a memory. [ 1e. most computers small amount of cache 1 ] Clock Speed What is ? What is it in? [ 2a. clock speed measured 2 ] Explain how a . [ 2b. higher clock speed improves performance 2 ] Explain the terms ' ' and ' ' and explain the of both on the of a computer. [ 2c. overclocking underclocking effects performance 4 ] ​ Number of Cores What is a ? [ 3a. core 2 ] Explain why a should have a than a . [ 3b. quad-core processor higher performance dual-core processor 3 ] Explain two reasons why having the . [ 3c. more cores doesn't necessarily mean performance will be better 2 ] 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.6 - Additional Hardware Theory Topics

  • 1.2 - The FDE Cycle - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.2: The FDE Cycle Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + The is performed by the millions of times every second. Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) cycle CPU ​ This cycle is how the for each program or service that requires its attention. CPU processes data and instructions Important Registers A is a for in the . register small storage space temporary data CPU ​ Each register has a . There are five essential registers used in the specific role FDE cycle : Program Counter (PC) A register that tracks the RAM address of the next instruction to be fetched . Memory Address Register (MAR) A register that tracks the RAM address of data that is currently being accessed . Memory Data Register (MDR) ​ The MDR stores the that is to the . data transferred from RAM CPU Current Instruction Register (CIR) A register that stores the instruction that has been fetched from RAM , and is about to be decoded or executed . Accumulator (ACC) ​ The ACC performed in the . stores the result of executions FDE cycle Fetch - Decode - Execute Cycle The essential idea of the FDE cycle is that , to be (understood) and . instructions are fetched from RAM decoded executed (processed) by the CPU 1. The ( ) register displays the of the . Program Counter PC address in RAM next instruction to be processed This value is the ( ). copied into Memory Address Register MAR 0054 2. The register is . PC increased by 1 ​ This for the to be fetched. prepares the CPU next instruction 0055 3. The CPU which held . checks the address in RAM matches the address in the MAR 0054 4. The is ( ). instruction in RAM transferred to the Memory Data Register MDR 5. The is ( ). instruction in the MDR copied into the Current Instruction Register CIR MDR MDR CIR 6. The is (understood) and (processed). instruction in the CIR decoded executed Any is ( ) register. result of an execution stored in the Accumulator ACC CIR ACC 7. The by returning to the and checking the program counter for the address of the . cycle repeats first step next instruction uesto's uestions Q Q 1.2 - The Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) Cycle: ​ . What is the ? [ 1 purpose of the registers 1 ] ​ . Describe : 2 the purpose of each register The [ a. Program Counter (PC) 1 ] The b. Memory Address Register (MAR) [ 1 ] The [ c. Memory Data Register (MDR) 1 ] The d. Current Instruction Register (CIR) [ 1 ] The [ e. Accumulator (ACC) 1 ] ​ Draw a diagram of the . [ 3. seven steps of the Fetch - Decode - Execute cycle 7 ] 1.1 - The CPU 1.3 - Primary Storage Theory Topics

  • About | CSNewbs

    about Frequently Asked Questions Computer Science Newbies Who made CSNewbs? My name is Mr Pulsford . I am a Computer Science teacher from London and I currently teach at a secondary school in Birmingham , England . ​ When and why did you make this? I wanted to make a resource that my . I was working on a paid summer project at in London in students could access outside of the classroom G o o g l e 2016 when I was inspired to start the site. I've been updating it ever since as much as I can, outside of lessons and life. I made CSNewbs to support students in lessons and at home because Computer Science can be a tricky subject and many websites are too technical or peripheral . Which courses does CSNewbs cover? The ' GCSE ' section follows the Eduqas specification ( both 2016 and 2020 ). The ' CTech ' section follows the OCR Cambridge Technicals Level 3 IT 2016 specification for Unit 1 (Fundamentals of IT) and Unit 2 (Global Information). The ' Programming ' section contains material for Python , HTML , Greenfoot and others. The ' KS3 ' section covers basic Computer Science topics aimed at Year 7 - 9 students . ​ Do the exam boards pay you money for this? CSNewbs is , . The content on this site has been by closely following the publicly released specifications by Eduqas and OCR. not affiliated with any exam board financially or otherwise independently created ​ Can I get a level 9 / distinction just from CSNewbs? The content on this website is of and should be used to of the course's content. Like all resources , it should be and . CSNewbs makes no miraculous claims linking content use and final exam results.​ high-quality guide students towards a better understanding however supported with a range of appropriate material sound classroom teaching How did you make this website? CSNewbs.com was created and is maintained using . Wix ​ What's the deal with copyright? CSNewbs is , and copy / paste features have been disabled on the site. All images have either been or used from . Embedded videos are linked to content from the page. If you think any content on this site , please email me, and I will make . protected by copyright created by myself Wix's copyright-free vector gallery / their stock image library CSNewbs YouTube infringes a copyright-protected work immediate changes ​ I don't see any adverts, how are you making money? You're right, there are and I intend to keep it that way. including but the . no adverts CSNewbs teacher resources are currently in development lesson slides , worksheets and revision activity sheets content on the site will always stay free and available ​ Can you add Unit 3 / OCR A-Level / something else? The site continues to . The eventual aim is to cover every exam board for GCSE Computer Science but that will take a lot of time! expand over time with new content Who is the robot? The robot is called Questo . It's the site mascot and it appears on most pages to ask you questions about the content (' Questo's Questions '). It used to have a body but since 2020 it's just a head. ​ I can't believe one person made this whole site while teaching and the rest, what are your long-term plans? If you work for an exam board or educational resource organisation , and your organisation has opportunities available , please send me an email. How can I contact the creator of CSNewbs? The contact email is: ​ You can stay updated by following on Twitter - @CSNewbs

  • 1.6 - Buses & Instruction Sets - Eduqas (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.6: Buses & Instruction Sets Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + Buses within a computer system along called . Data is transferred pathways buses ​ There are of bus: three types Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus Sends a of where data is stored.​​ The address is sent in the FDE cycle. memory address from the CPU to RAM Transfers between components. Data is sent . data both ways Sends from the to other components of the system. are sent back to the CPU. control signals control unit Status signals An is a that a . instruction set list of all the instructions CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler ( ) and more complicated ( ). RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer Instruction Sets Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but fewer instructions . quick for basic tasks CISC has available and can therefore perform more complex instructions . complicated tasks Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. uesto's uestions Q Q 1.6 - Buses & Instruction Sets: ​ Buses 1. For each describe what its is and if it is (both ways) or (one way) : type of bus role bi- uni- directional Address Bus [ a. 2 ] b. Data Bus [ 2 ] c. Control Bus [ 2 ] ​ ​ Instruction Sets What do and stand for? [ 1. RISC CISC 2 ] Explain (you must mention​ , , and ). [ ] 2. four differences between RISC & CISC Complexity Cost Power Clock Speed 8 Suggest why a device like a uses instead of CISC. [ 3. tablet RISC ] 2 1.5 - Performance Theory Topics 1.7 - Additional Hardware

  • 1.3 - Access & Devices | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.3 - Access & Storage Devices Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Handheld Devices Examples of handheld devices: are small, light and possibly can be worn on the human body. These devices are very and easy to transport but their small size the space for a powerful processor or high memory capacity. Handheld devices are becoming more powerful over time with extra features, storage options and network connectivity. Handheld devices portable restricts ​ Advantages: Light and portable so they can be easily carried on a person or in a pocket . Runs on battery power so do not need to be plugged into a power source (unless to charge) allowing for freedom of movement . ​ Disadvantages: due to small size and . Low processing power no cooling system which may not last for long. Relies on battery power More likely to be . lost, damaged or stolen Generally and . small memory / storage capacity low versatility Smartphone Small Tablet eReader Smartwatch Portable Devices Examples of portable devices: are larger and more powerful than handheld devices and can be carried easily in a bag. and are the main examples of portable devices. Portable devices Laptops larger tablets ​ ​ Advantages: Light and portable so they can be easily transported in a laptop bag or small rucksack. Runs on battery power so they can work without a power outlet , such as to complete work on a train or in a library. More powerful and versatile than handheld devices. ​ Disadvantages: and than fixed devices like desktops. Lower processing power smaller memory / storage capacity which may only be a few hours. Reliant on their battery power Laptop Large Tablet Fixed Devices Examples of fixed devices: are bulky devices that require a . The most common example of a fixed device is a which has a higher processing power and storage capacity than handheld and portable devices. Fixed devices constant power connection desktop computer ​ Advantages: Desktop computers have the highest processing power of commercially available home / work computers and contain sufficient cooling systems to maintain temperature. Desktops and games consoles have large storage capacities and can be upgraded / expanded to even larger sizes. Desktop computers are very versatile and are powerful enough to be used for thousands of different purposes, from basic word processing and web browsing to server roles and data mining. ​ Disadvantages: and cannot be transported whilst on. Reliant on a power outlet . May require like a monitor. Heavy and difficult to move additional components Typically than handheld and portable devices. more expensive Desktop Games Console Smart TV Shared Devices A allows to access data at the . is the most common example of a shared device and is used by individuals, schools and businesses around the world through services such as Google Drive, Apple's iCloud and Microsoft's One Drive. A is a dedicated building that contains computer systems - Facebook uses data centres across the globe so that their social media service can be available to users every second of the day. were explained in . shared device multiple users same time Cloud storage data centre Database servers Unit 1 section 3.1 ​ Advantages: A ccessible by multiple users at the same time . For example, the database server can be accessed by employees of a bank simultaneously. Data centres allow online services to run all hours of the day and year . For example, Google uses data centres across the world to ensure their services can be accessed all of the time. Cloud storage frees up physical space for users as the storage is located (usually) on third-party servers. Cloud storage devices allow such as clients or staff members to or (outside of the office). authorised users access information work remotely ​ Disadvantages: Shared devices are . If a connection is lost, to the device will be . reliant on stable network connections access affected Setting up shared devices within an organisation requires , especially for companies establishing their own cloud storage or data centre. technical knowledge Examples of shared devices: Cloud Storage Data Centre Database Server uesto's uestions Q Q 1.3 - Access & Storage Devices: ​ Identify the that the following devices fit into: 1. type of device Laptop a. Cloud storage b. Desktop computer c. Smartphone [ ] d. 4 ​ Describe the of using of storage devices. 2. advantages and disadvantages each of the 4 types Handheld devices [ ] a. 6 Portable devices [ ] b. 6 Fixed devices [ ] c. 6 Shared devices [ ] d. 6 ​ For the following scenarios explain which (not type) which would be suitable. You must also . 3. specific device justify your choice Working on a spreadsheet on a train before work. [ ] a. 4 Taking a video of a penalty in a football match to upload to Twitter. [ ] b. 4 Working on a file with team members located across the country. [ ] c. 4 Playing Civilization VI on highest settings whilst listening to rock climbing podcasts in a separate tab. [ ] d. 4 1.2 - Storage Media Topic List 1.4 - Internet Connections

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