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  • 2.3 - Quality of Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    2.3 - Quality of Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Information Characteristics Valid Information This is correct, up-to-date and complete information that fits its purpose . For example, detailed end-of-year financial data in the form of graphs. Biased Information This is technically correct, but slanted , information that presents a one-sided view . For example, end-of year financial data that focuses on profits and ignores significant losses. Relevant Information Information should be appropriate for the required purpose . Irrelevant information may get in the way of correct decision making. Accurate Information Information should be carefully selected and entirely correct , inaccurate information can lead to unwanted consequences such as higher costs and missed deadlines. Reliable Information Information from a source that can be verified and confirmed to be correct . For example, BBC News is a more reliable information source than social media posts. Information Quality The quality of information that an organisation uses will have a significant impact on further processes and decisions. ​ Good quality information that is accurate , valid or reliable can lead to better strategic decisions , meeting deadlines and innovation . ​ Poor quality information that is biased , inaccurate or out of date may lead to negative consequences such as loss of customer trust , fines and legal challenges . Positive Effects of Good Quality Information Reliable information received by the management team . Good quality research information. Good quality sales information. Accurate cost projection information. Informed decisions with a higher chance of success . Can lead to innovation and better understanding . Strategic decisions and planning ahead . Projects will stay within their budget . Accurate time expectations . Projects will be completed on time . Negative Effects of Poor Quality Information Biased survey with inaccurate results . Inaccurate stock information. Out of date information received by management . Inaccurate data has led to poor reviews online . Inaccurate time expectations . Misinformed decisions , not responding to customers needs . ??? Inaccurate delivery times , customers unhappy . Too much / little stock. Miss out on opportunities , possible fall in profits . Loss of customer trust , loss of customers and reputation . Financial issues . Projects take longer , cost more , stakeholders unhappy . Possible project failure . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.3 - Quality of Information: ​ 1. Describe 5 characteristics of information . [10 ] ​ 2. Explain 5 positive impacts of good quality information . [10 ] ​ 3. Explain 5 negative impacts of poor quality information . [10 ] 2.2 - Information Classification 2.4 - Information Management Topic List

  • Computer Science Newbies

    C omputer S cience P ros Official 2024 CSPros: Jack Harry Aarav Trisha Mario Hiba Rory Clark Lucy Divya Luke Callum James Zoya Timucin Matthew 2023 CSPros: Henry Zain Iman Alex I-C Alex B Tomos Aidan Rahul Hussain Diyar Sam Harry Will Alex H

  • 2.1 - Logical Operators - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    2.1: Logical Operators & Truth Tables Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a logical operator? Inside of each computer system are millions of transistors . These are tiny switches that can either be turned on (represented in binary by the number 1 ) or turned off (represented by 0 ). ​ Logical operators are symbols used to represent circuits of transistors within a computer. The four most common operators are: ​ NOT AND OR XOR What is a truth table? A truth table is a visual way of displaying all possible outcomes of a logical operator. The input and output values in a truth table must be a Boolean value - usually 0 or 1 but occasionally True or False. NOT A NOT logical operator will produce an output which is the opposite of the input . ​ NOT is represented by a horizontal line . Boolean Algebra Notation written as NOT A A Truth Table AND An AND logical operator will output 1 only if both inputs are also 1 . ​ AND is represented by a full stop. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A AND B A.B Truth Table OR An OR logical operator will output 1 if either input is 1 . ​ OR is represented by a plus. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A OR B A+B Truth Table XOR An XOR (exclusive OR) logical operator will output 1 if the inputs are different and output 0 if the inputs are the same . ​ XOR is represented by a circled plus. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A XOR B A B Truth Table Multiple Operations Exam questions will ask you complete truth tables that use more than one logical operator . Work out each column in turn from left to right and look carefully at which column you need to use. Simplification You may be asked to use a truth table to simplify an expression . ​ This is actually really easy. Once you've completed the truth table see if any columns match the final expression . A+B and A+(A+B) both result in the same values , therefore: A+(A+B) can be simplified as just A+B. Q uesto's Q uestions 2.1 - Logical Operators: ​ 1. Copy and complete the following truth tables: ​ ​ ​ 1b. Simplify the expression in the second truth table. ​ 2a. A cinema uses a computer system to monitor how many seats have been allocated for upcoming movies. If both the premium seats and the standard seats are sold out then the system will display a message. State the type of logical operator in this example. 2b. For the more popular movies, the cinema's computer system will also display a message if either the premium seats or the standard seats have exclusively been sold out. However, it will not output a message when both have been sold out. State the type of logical operator in this example. 1.6 - Additional Hardware 2.2 - Boolean Algebra Theory Topics

  • Privacy Policy | CSNewbs

    Computer Science Newbies Privacy Policy What type of information do you collect? We receive, collect and store any information you enter on our website or provide us in any other way. In addition, we collect the Internet protocol (IP) address used to connect your computer to the Internet. For users with registered accounts, we collect your login; e-mail address; password; computer and connection information and purchase history. We may use software tools to measure and collect session information, including page response times, length of visits to certain pages, page interaction information, and methods used to browse away from the page. For customers of the site we also collect personally identifiable information (including name, email, password, communications); payment details (including credit card information), comments, feedback, product reviews, recommendations, and personal profile How do you collect information? When you conduct a transaction on our website, as part of the process, we collect personal information you give us such as your name, address and email address. Your personal information will be used for the specific reasons stated above only. Why do you collect such personal information? We collect such Non-personal and Personal Information for the following purposes: To provide and operate the CSN+ service; To provide our Users with ongoing customer assistance and technical support; To be able to contact our Visitors and Users with general or personalized service-related notices and promotional messages; To create aggregated statistical data and other aggregated and/or inferred Non-personal Information, which we or our business partners may use to provide and improve our respective services; To comply with any applicable laws and regulations. How do you store, use, share and disclose your site visitors' personal information? Our company is hosted on the platform. provides us with the online platform that allows us to sell our products and services to you. Your data may be stored through’s data storage, databases and the general applications. They store your data on secure servers behind a firewall. All direct payment gateways offered by and used by our company adhere to the standards set by PCI-DSS as managed by the PCI Security Standards Council, which is a joint effort of brands like Visa, MasterCard, American Express and Discover. PCI-DSS requirements help ensure the secure handling of credit card information by our store and its service providers ​ How do you communicate with your site visitors? We may contact you to notify you regarding your account, to troubleshoot problems with your account, to resolve a dispute, to send updates about our company, or as otherwise necessary to contact you to enforce our User Agreement, applicable national laws, and any agreement we may have with you. For these purposes, we may contact you via email. How do you use cookies and other tracking tools? The following essential cookies are used on this site: ​ RF-TOKEN (Used for security reasons during your session on the site.) hs (Used for security reasons during your session on the site.) svSession (Used in connection with user login.) SSR-caching (Used to indicate the system from which the site was rendered. Duration of 1 minute.) _wixCIDX (Used for system monitoring/debugging. Duration of 3 months.) _wix_browser_sess (Used for system monitoring/debugging during your session on the site.) consent-policy (Used for cookie banner parameters. Duration of 12 months.) smSession (Used to identify logged in site members during your session on the site.) TS* (Used for security and anti-fraud reasons during your session on the site.) Session (Used for system effectiveness measurement. Duration of 30 minutes.) fedops.logger.sessionId (Used for stability/effectiveness measurement. Duration of 12 months.) ​ To learn more about cookies please visit ​ How can your site visitors withdraw their consent? If you have a registered account and don’t want us to process your data anymore, please contact us at the site email address listed at the bottom of this page. ​ Privacy policy updates We reserve the right to modify this privacy policy at any time, so please review it frequently. Changes and clarifications will take effect immediately upon their posting on the website. If we make material changes to this policy, we will notify you here that it has been updated, so that you are aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we use and/or disclose it. ​ Questions and contact information If you would like to: access, correct, amend or delete any personal information we have about you, you are invited to contact us at:

  • Python | 4b - Mathematical Operators | CSNewbs

    top Python 4b - Mathematical Operators Modulo Division The modulo operator - the percentage symbol % - will work out the remainder left over when one value is divided by another. print (30 % 6) = 0 30 ÷ 6 = 5, which is a whole number, so there is no remainder and 0 is output . print (30 % 7) = 2 30 ÷ 7 = 4 remainder 2 ; so the remainder is output . You can use modulo with variables too: num1 = 33 num2 = 4 print ( "The remainder is" , num1 % num2) The remainder is 1 = A common use of modulo is to check if a number is odd or even . If a number has no remainder when divided by 2 then it is even . = num = int ( input ( "Enter a number: " )) if num % 2 == 0: print (num, "is even." ) else : print (num , "is odd." ) Enter a number: 400 400 is even. Enter a number: 191 191 is odd. = Modulo Div i sion Task 1 ( Remainder) Ask the user to input a whole number . ​ Use the modulo operator ( % ) to check if there is a remainder when the user's number is divided by 5 . Print the re mainder. Example solution: Enter a number: 123 The remainder when divided by 5 is 3 Modulo Div i sion Task 2 ( Rollercoaster) Use the odd/even program above to help solve this problem: ​ A rollercoaster only lets people on in groups of 4 . ​ Ask the user to input a number for how many people are in their group. Check if that number is directly divisible by 4 using modulo division ( % ). If it is then print “Perfect groups of four!” Else print “You will be split up” . Example solutions: Welcome to the Hyper Coaster! How many in your group? 6 You will be split up! Welcome to the Hyper Coaster! How many in your group? 12 Perfect groups of four! Integer Division Integer division removes any decimal numbers when performing division , leaving just the integer (whole number ). ​ In Python integer division is performed using // . print (20 / 3) print (20 // 3) = 6.666666666666667 6 Integer Div i sion Task 1 ( Integer Division by 5 ) Use an input line with int to ask the user to enter a number . ​ Use integer division ( // ) to divide the number by 5 without keeping any decimal values . ​ Challenge: Improve your solution by altering the print line to be more user friendly . Example solutions: Enter a number: 27 5 Enter a number: 27 5 goes into 27 5 times. Integer Div i sion Task 2 ( Plane Rows) A large plane has 6 seats in row. ​ Input the number of passengers on the plane and use integer division to work out how many full rows will be filled. Example solution: How many passengers are there in total? 174 There will be 29 full rows on the plane. Exponent (Powers) An exponent is the number of times a value is multiplied by itself , for example 2 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 . The symbol to represent an exponent in Python is ** . For example: 4**2 represents 4 which is also 4 x 4 . 3 2 print (4**4) = 256 base = 5 exponent = 4 print (base**exponent) 625 = Exponent Task 1 ( Square Number) Use an input line with int to ask the user to enter a number . ​ Output the square of this number. Example solution: Enter a number: 12 12 squared is 144 Exponent Task 2 ( Custom Exponent) Use an input line with int to ask the user to enter a number, this will be the base . Make another input line with int to ask for the exponent . ​ Use ** between the base and the exponent and print it. ​ Challenge: Make your solution better by including the base and exponent in the print line. Example solutions: Enter the base: 7 Enter the exponent: 3 343 Enter the base: 7 Enter the exponent: 3 7 to the power of 3 is 343 ⬅ 4a - If Statements 4 c - Log ical Operators ➡

  • 1.2 - Processors | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 1.2 Processors Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has fewer instructions than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but quick for basic tasks . CISC has more complex instructions available and can therefore perform complicated tasks . Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.2 - Processors: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 1.1b Performance Theory Topics 1.3a - Input & Output Devices

  • Python | 1c - Creating Variables | CSNewbs

    top Python 1c - Creating Variables What is a Variable? A variable represents a value that can change as a program is running . The two parts of a variable are the name (e.g. sweets) and the value (e.g. 8). sweets = 8 ​ print (sweets) = 8 amount of sweets = 8 ​ 8sweets = 8 sweets A variable can't contain spaces , it must start with a letter , and you must declare its value before you can use or print it. You always need to print the variable name (e.g. biscuits), not the value (20) as the value can change. Important – When writing variable names, we do not need speech marks. (e.g. type biscuits , not “biscuits”) ​ We use variables because the value of something might change as the program is executed. For example, if someone eats a sweet then the value of our variable changes: sweets = 8 ​ print (sweets) ​ sweets = 7 print (sweets) = 8 7 sweets = 8 ​ print ( Sweets) You must be consistent with capital letters when writing variable names. ​ sweets and Sweets are treated as two different variables. Creating Variables Task 1 ( Age & Pets) Make a variable named age and set it to your current age. On the next line print age . ​ Make another variable named pets and set it to how many pets you have. On the next line print pets . Example solution: 14 2 Variables with Strings (Text) In programming, a collection of alphanumeric characters (letters, numbers and punctuation) is called a string . "Pikachu" is a string. ​ In the example below, pokemon is the variable name that represents the variable value "Pikachu" . pokemon = "Pikachu" ​ print (pokemon) = Pikachu To create a string, we use "speech marks" . Numbers by themselves and variable names do not use speech marks. Each variable can only have one value at a time, but it can change throughout the program. pokemon = "Pikachu" ​ print (pokemon) ​ pokemon = "Squirtle" ​ print (pokemon) = Pikachu Squirtle Creating Variables Task 2 ( Superhero & Colour ) Make a variable named superhero and set it to any of your choice, such as "Spider-Man" . Print the superhero variable on the next line. ​ Make another variable named colour and set it to the colour related to your chosen superhero. Print the colour variable on the next line. Example solutions: Spider-Man Red The Hulk Green ⬅ 1b - Co mmenting 1d - Using Variables ➡

  • 3.4 - Hardware & Routing - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.4: Network Hardware & Routing Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Network Devices Hub A hub receives data packets from a connected device and transfers a copy to all connected nodes . Switch A switch receives data packets , processes them and transfers them on to the device specifically listed in the destination address of the packet. Router Routers are used to transfer data packets between networks . Data is sent from network to network on the internet towards the destination address listed in the data packet. A router stores the address of each computer on the network and uses routing tables to calculate the quickest and shortest path . Bridge A bridge joins together two networks that use the same base protocols . For example, a bridge could link together a LAN to another LAN . Wireless Access Point (WAP) Provides a link between wireless and wired networks . It creates a wireless local area network that allows WiFi enabled devices to connect to a wired network. Network Interface Card (NIC) A Network Interface Card (often shortened to NIC ) is an internal piece of hardware that is required for the computer to connect to a network . It used to be a separate expansion card but now it is commonly built directly into the motherboard (and sometimes known as a network adapter ). Wireless network interface cards ( WNIC ) permit a wireless network connection. Routing A routing table is a list of the optimal routes for data packets to be sent from one device to another. ​ Routing tables should be kept accurate and up to date to ensure that packets are transferred as quickly as possible . ​ During routing the lowest cost route is calculated . This is the shortest path with the fastest nodes to transfer data. ​ Below is a simplified network and basic routing table showing the lowest cost (optimal) route using node A as the source address. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.4 - Network Hardware & Routing: 1a. Describe the difference between a hub and a switch . [ 2 ] 1b. Explain how a modem works. [ 2 ] 1c. Describe the purpose of a router . [ 2 ] 1d. Describe the difference between a gateway and a bridge . [ 2 ] 1e. State what WAP stands for and describe its purpose . [ 2 ] 1f. State what NIC stands for and why it is required . [ 2 ] ​ 2a. Describe what a routing table is and why they should be maintained . [ 2 ] 2b. In terms of routing, what does a low-cost route mean? [ 2 ] 2c. Copy and complete the routing table below using node J as the source address . [ 4 ] ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ 3.3 - Network Topology Theory Topics 3.5 - Protocols

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 3.2 - Virtualisation | CSNewbs

    3.2 - Virtualisation Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What is virtualisation? Virtualisation describes the creation of a virtual version of a device, software or server. Storage virtualisation combines multiple storage devices so that they appear to be just one device. Server virtualisation allows one physical server to host multiple virtual machines, each running separately. Virtual Client Think back to the hypervisor from 3.1 . A virtual client is a full desktop environment where the processing happens remotely . For example, where an operating system is managed and hosted centrally but displayed locally on a different computer (dumb client). ​ A problem with virtual clients is that users will be unable to work if network connectivity is lost, and an increased load on the server might result in poor performance for each client. ​ A common use of virtualisation is in testing applications within a secure environment before they are used with the main system. Virtual Clients Benefits & Drawbacks of Virtualisation Benefits of virtualisation: ​ Costs are cheaper in the long-term because money is saved by not purchasing multiple physical devices . Money is also saved due to less cabling and lower power consumption . ​ If set up efficiently, it can be used for higher performance at a lower cost - "Do more with less" . ​ Programs can be tested in a secure environment before main-system deployment. ​ Simplified response to recover after a disaster because only the server needs to be fixed. Drawbacks of virtualisation: ​ If not set up efficiently, users could face serious performance issues , as fewer servers do more work. ​ If a single physical system fails , the impact will be greater . ​ Initial set up is complex , requires technical knowledge and can cost a lot. ​ Easier for hackers to take more information at once as the data is stored in the same place. Cloud Technology 'The cloud' is storage that is accessed through a network , primarily the internet. A cloud server is an example of storage virtualisation as data may be stored across multiple physical devices. There are three different types of cloud storage: Private cloud is where a business will have its own data centre that can be accessed by employees. This allows for flexible and convenient data storage and gives the business control over data management and security . Users of the private cloud will not usually have to pay individually for access - but the company will need to spend a lot of money on set up and maintenance . Public cloud uses third-party service providers such as Google Drive or DropBox to provide storage over the internet . Public cloud is usually a pay-for-use service , where businesses will pay for specific amounts that they need. Data management and data security is maintained by the cloud provider and the business is dependent on them providing constant access and deploying effective security measures. Hybrid cloud uses a mix of on-site storage (private cloud) and third-party (public cloud) services . Organisations can move workloads between private and public clouds as their specific needs and costs change . A benefit of hybrid cloud is that it gives an organisation more flexibility and data storage options. As an example, a company could use on-site or private cloud storage to hold sensitive information and third-party, public cloud services to hold less important data . Q uesto's Q uestions 3.2 - Virtualisation: 1. What is the difference between server and storage virtualisation ? [ 2 ] 2. What is a virtual client ? [ 1 ] ​ 3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using virtualisation. [16 ] ​ 4. Describe the differences between private , public and hybrid cloud storage. [6 ] 3.1 - Server Types Topic List 3.3 - Network Characteristics

  • 10.2 - Stages of Compilation - Eduqas (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    10.2: Stages of Compilation Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + A compiler translates source code (high-level language written by a programmer) into machine code in five separate stages : 1. Lexical Analysis The term 'lexical' refers to words and phrases . Source code needs to be broken down into tokens that can later be analysed. ​ In lexical analysis: ​ Spaces and comments are removed from the code. Identifiers , keywords and operators are replaced by tokens . A token is similar to a variable with a name and a value . A symbol table is created. T his table stores the addresses of all variables , labels and subroutines used in the program. ​ 2. Syntax Analysis The term 'syntax' refers to sentence structure . ​ In syntax analysis: The tokens created in the first stage are checked to see if they follow the syntax (spelling and grammar ) rules of the programming language. This process is called ' parsing ' . During parsing, if a syntax error is found then an error message is displayed and compilation stops . 3. Semantic Analysis The term 'semantic' refers to logic . Variables are checked in this stage to ensure they are used correctly: ​ Variable checks ensure they are correctly declared and use a valid data type (for example integers are not assigned to decimal values). Operation checks ensure they are correct for the data type used ( for example dividing a number must result in an real value ). 4. Code Generation The machine code (data in a binary format ) is generated . 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0101 0110 5. Code Optimisation The code is optimised so it is fast , efficient and uses as little of the computer's resources as possible. Q uesto's Q uestions 10.2 - Stages of Compilation: ​ 1 a. List the 6 stages of compilation in order . [6 ] 1b. Create a poster or flowchart describing each of the 6 stages of compilation : 1. Lexical Analysis 2. Symbol Table Creation 3. Syntax Analysis 4. Semantic Analysis 5. Code Generation 6. Code Optimisation [ 10 total ] 10.1 - Translators Theory Topics 10.3 - Programming Errors

  • HTML Guide 3 - Text Tags | CSNewbs

    3. Tags for Text HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: Remember to write the tags for everything you want the user to see between the and tags. Headings Time to add text to your web page such as headings and paragraphs. To write a large heading , use and ​ To write headings in a smaller size, use numbers between 1 and 6. Add a large heading and a sub-heading to your webpage. paragraph Paragraphs Typing text between the and tags will create a paragraph . Add at least three different paragraphs to your webpage. bold underline italics Bold, Underline & Italics You can format your text by changing it to be bold , underlined or italicised (slanted). Now you have text on your web page, you can add hyperlinks to take viewers to different websites. In the paragraphs you have already written, add at least 1 bold tag, 1 underline tag and 1 italics tag. 2. Essential Tags HTML Guide 4. Hyperlinks

  • 4.1c - Signed Binary & Floating Point | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 4.1c - Signed Binary & Floating Point Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1c - Signed Binary & Floating Point: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 4.1b - Denary, Binary & Hexadecimal Theory Topics 4.1d - Binary Calculations

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