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  • Computer Science Newbies

    C omputer S cience Newb ie s Popular CSNewbs topics: Programming PYTHON GCSE Computer Science OCR GCSE Computer Science EDUQAS OCR Cambridge Technicals Level 3 IT You are viewing the mobile version of CSNewbs. The site may appear better on a desktop or laptop . Programming HTML CSNewbs last updated: Saturday 9th December 2023 Over 393,000 visits in the past year! About CSNewbs

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 4.1 - Communication Skills | CSNewbs

    4.1 - Communication Skills Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Communication skills are vital for anybody working within the IT industry. Employees will need to communicate with other members of their team and with those who encounter issues with their computer systems. Interpersonal Skills Communication is not just through speaking to another person, behaviour is also important. Employees should sit up straight in their chairs to show interest and eye contact should be maintained when speaking to another person or listening in a meeting. It is important to speak clearly so that others can understand what you are trying to say. Verbal Communication Employees should know when to use informal and formal language appropriately. For example, formal language should be used in meetings as it is a work environment . ​ Employees should think carefully about when to use technical terms . Technical terminology should be used when discussing issues with technicians but simplified explanations should be given to customers who may be inexperienced with their systems. Questioning Techniques Questioning is used to uncover problems in order to solve them . Closed questions will be direct and prompt a short, often one-word answer, such as "How many times have you tried to log in?". ​ Open questions don't have an obvious answer and may elicit an opinion , such as "Why are you using Internet Explorer instead of Google Chrome?". ​ Avoid leading questions - where you expect a certain response from the answerer, such as "Is the system always this slow?" Written Communication Again this form of communication can be formal - such as a letter to apply for a job - or informal - like sending a text or instant message to a team member. ​ There are a number of considerations to take before deciding whether communication should be formal or informal. For example, if the communication is between peers or external agencies (such as other companies or customers), any policies the organisation has in place and whether the communication will be legally recorded (such as saving all email correspondence). Barriers to Communication There are several reasons why a messages between people may be received incorrectly . ​ For example noise , language (not necessarily different languages but using technical terms) and physical barriers (i.e. learning difficulties or disabilities such as deafness). Another barrier is distraction - an email may be delayed because an employee is distracted by social media or other co-workers. Phones should also be turned off or to silent during meetings. Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1 - Communication Skills: 1. Describe 3 interpersonal actions that an employee should follow when speaking or listening to other team members. [ 3 ] 2. Explain when an employee should use technical terms and when they should simplify their explanations . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Describe the difference between closed , open and leading questions , giving an example of each. [6 ] ​ 4. Describe 3 things that should be considered when deciding between formal or informal written communication . [3 ] ​ 5. Describe 3 different barriers to successful communication . [3 ] 3.5 - Business Systems Topic List 4.2 - Communication Technology

  • 6.1 - Operating Systems - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    6.1: Operating Systems Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is an Operating System? An operating system (OS ) is software that helps to manage the resources of a computer system . There are eight main roles of an operating system: Manage the CPU A critical role of the OS is to manage the CPU so that applications and processes can be run efficiently . ​ The CPU is effectively managed by performing three further roles: Manage Memory (RAM) The OS reserves memory space in RAM for stored programs to be copied into. The FDE cycle is executed continuously to carry out the instructions. ​ The OS also ensures that programs are appropriately managed so that data is stored in correct memory locations and not corrupted . Manage Interrupts A interrupt is an alert signal sent to the CPU when an application or hardware device requires immediate attention . The OS must efficiently manage interrupts so that a problem can be dealt with quickly if one occurs. Manage Multi-Tasking The OS manages tasks so instructions can be executed by the CPU in turn - this is called scheduling . The OS prevents processes from interfering with others and crashing. Tasks should appear to run simultaneously even though only one process can be executed at a time. Manage Backing Store The backing store is another term for secondary storage devices such as the magnetic hard disk drive , optical drives or solid state memory sticks. ​ The OS ensures data is stored correctly and can be efficiently retrieved from the backing store. Files are organised in a hierarchical (logical) structure . Manage Peripherals A peripheral is an external device connected to a computer system to input or output data . The OS manages the receiving of data from input devices (such as a keyboard or mouse) and the transfer of data to output devices (such as a monitor or speaker). Manage Security The OS allows users to create, manage and delete accounts with different permissions. It also permits multiple users to log in and change passwords . ​ Antivirus and firewall software is managed by the OS as well as some data encryption processes. Manage the User Interface The final function of an operating system is to provide a user interface , allowing a human to interact with the computer system . The way in which a user can navigate a computer system is known as human-computer interaction ( HCI ). Graphical User Interface (GUI) The most common type of user interface is a graphical user interface (GUI ) which can be presented in the following ways: Icons are displayed to represent shortcuts to applications and files. Multiple windows can be opened at the same time and switched between. A folder and file system is displayed and manipulated allowing for copying , searching , sorting and deleting data. The interface can be customised , such as changing font sizes and the desktop background . The taskbar allows shortcuts to be pinned for quick access . Menus can be opened from the Start button to display files and shortcuts. System settings can be accessed such as network and hardware options . Q uesto's Q uestions 6.1 - Operating Systems: ​ 1. Describe each role of the operating system : 1. Manage the CPU [ 2 ] 2. Manage memory [ 2 ] 3. Manage interrupts [ 2 ] 4. Manage multi-tasking [ 2 ] 5. Manage backing store [ 2 ] 6. Manage peripherals [ 2 ] 7. Manage security [ 2 ] 8. Manage the user interface [ 2 ] ​ 2. Describe 5 different ways the operating system can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) . [5 ] ​ 3. Describe two advantages and two disadvantages of using the following types of human-computer interaction (HCI) : a. Command-Line interface [ 4 ] b. Touch-Sensitive interface [ 4 ] c. Menu-Driven interface [ 4 ] d. Voice-Driven interface [ 4 ] Command-Line Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a command-line interface (CLI ). This type of interface is entirely text-based and requires users to interact with the system by typing commands . This is a complicated process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only experts who have been trained t o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface displays data in a series of linked menus . Examples include cash machines (ATMs) and old iPods . ​ This type of interface is generally user friendly and easy to use as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be annoying to find specific data through a large number of menus without a search feature. Touch-Sensitive Interface Another type of user interface is a touch-sensitive interface , used with smartphones and tablets . ​ A human interacts with the device by pressing on a touchscreen , making it very intuitive and suitable for most users without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may not work with dirty or wet fingers and it will take longer to write text compared to using a keyboard. Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be controlled by speaking commands aloud to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's Alexa devices, Apple's Siri technology and Google Home . ​ This interface is intuitive , can be used hands-free and helps to speed up processes . However commands may be misheard or limited in what can be performed. 5.1 - Data Structures Theory Topics 6.2 - Utility Software

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 3.5 - Business Systems | CSNewbs

    3.5 - Business Systems Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Businesses have developed many systems to manage and manipulate data and aid business practices. Management Information System (MIS) An MIS is used to collect, store, analyse and present data for an organisation. The system processes a large amount of data and organises it (such as in databases) so that it can be used for decision making and general data analysis . An efficient MIS can be used to display the financial status of an organisation, highlight areas of improvement and generate sales forecasts based on current data. Specifically, a bank could use an MIS for: Looking at numbers of customers that visit each branch. Forecasting takings based on historical data. Profiling customers. Identifying customers who haven’t saved recently to target them for email. Benefits of an MIS: ​ Integrated system: ​ A Management Information System shares a large amount of data from multiple departments within an organisation to produce accurate reports. For example, financial data can be used to generate accurate pay slips. Decision Making: An MIS can be used to inform an organisation's decision making by highlighting areas that need improvement within the company. Powerful analysis: ​An MIS will use large data sets to provide accurate data analysis that can be used in many different ways by an organisation. Trends and patterns can be identified easily. Backup capabilities: ​ Data can be stored centrally and backed up easily if a disaster occurs. Limitations of an MIS: ​ Cost and installation: ​ An MIS is an expensive tool that needs to be professionally set up and requires technical knowledge to maintain. Requires accurate data: ​ If any data is incorrect or out of date then the analysis will consequently be inaccurate . Potentially disastrous decisions could be made as a result of incorrect data. Training: Employees will need to be trained to use the software accurately for maximum efficiency. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) A CRM system is used to improve the relationship between an organisation and its customers . It can be used to increase customer loyalty with those who already subscribe to their services as well as used to try and increase the customer base by attracting new customers. The ultimate goal of a CRM system is to increase and retain customers which will result in more sales and higher profits . Examples of CRM systems: Marketing teams tracking which promotions customers are responding well to . Customer service teams responding quickly to customer complaints , through a variety of channels (such as social media, emails and telephone calls). Marketing teams rewarding customers who have spent a certain amount in a year. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) A standard operating procedure is a comprehensive step-by-step guide of how to carry out a business routine. An organisation will create an SOP to abide by legal requirements and high company standards . SOPs must be followed in exactly the same method each time and by each employee to ensure the same outcome and remove any inconsistencies . ​ Benefits of Standard Operating Procedures: ​ Ensures consistency: ​ The outcome should be the same each time when following SOPs which ensures an efficient result . Fewer errors: ​ If all employees follow the SOP carefully then there should be no errors . Meets legal requirements : The SOPs will be designed to meet up-to-date legislation as well as any standards that the company have set. Limitations of Standard Operating Procedures: ​ Inflexible practice: ​ A lot of time may be spent on creating the paperwork and admin instead of the actual job. Legal updates: ​ The SOPs must be periodically reviewed and updated to take into account any new laws . Sales Ordering Process (SOP) This is the process of a customer buying a product or service and the company reviewing the purchase. 1. The customer orders a product or service, usually via email or telephone conversation. 2. The order is confirmed and a sales order is created. This is a document that lists the customer’s requirements and exactly what they have purchased. 3. The sales order is sent to the relevant departments (e.g. production, finance and delivery) so they can fulfil the customer’s request . Once the order has been completed the customer will be sent an invoice for payment . The SOP is important as it creates a clear plan for ordering a product. Each department can use the sales order to know exactly what jobs to perform. Help Desk Help desk software is used to provide real-time support to a user from a trained member of staff to overcome a technical problem . The customer logs an issue in the form of a ticket and is assigned a technician . As the technician tries to communicate with the user and solve the issue they must follow a service level agreement that defines the high standards the technician must keep to. When the problem has been solved the ticket is closed. All tickets are archived so that persistent problems can be checked. If Help Desk software is used within a company to report and solve issues it is known as in-house . Benefits of Help Desk software: ​ Keeping Track: ​C ustomers can see that their issues are being dealt with and administrators have clear records of the problem. Audit Logs: All tickets are archived so if a problem occurs on the same machine the previous solution can be attempted again . Communication : Formal messages between the customer and the administrator mean there are no mixed messages and a running dialogue can take place as the problem is fixed. Limitations of Help Desk software: ​ Cost : Setting up the necessary software and hardware and paying for an administrator to run the system can cost a large amount of money. Availability issues: ​ A technician might not be available 24/7 or during holidays. Formal structure: ​ This is a formal system that takes time to record and respond to which might annoy staff when it is only a minor issue to be fixed, like resetting a password. Knowledge: ​ Technicians need technical expertise regarding the company's computer systems and need to be able to fix both hardware and software issues. This might require additional training every few years. Ticket Response Time: ​ Administrators must ensure that all tickets are read and responded to in reasonable time so that productivity in the company is not affected. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.5 - Business Systems: 1a. What is the purpose of an MIS ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe 3 ways a bank could use an MIS . [ 3 ] 1c. Describe the benefits and limitations of an MIS . [10 ] ​ 2a. What is the purpose of a CRM ? [ 4 ] 2b. Describe 3 ways that a CRM could be used by a company . [6 ] ​ 3a. What are standard operating procedures (SOP ) and why are they used? [ 4 ] 3b. Describe the benefits and limitations of SOPs . [ 10 ] ​ 4a. What is the sales ordering process ( SOP )? [ 2 ] 4b. Why is the SOP important in a company? [ 2 ] 4c. Summarise the 3 stages of the SOP . [ 4 ] ​ 5a. What is the purpose of help desk software? [ 2 ] 5b. Explain how help desk works , including tickets , technicians and service level agreements . [3 ] 5c. Describe the benefits and limitations of Help Desks . [ 10 ] 3.4 - Connection Methods Topic List 4.1 - Communication Methods

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.3 - Computer System Types | CSNewbs

    1.3 - Computer System Types Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Different types of computer system are available to purchase and use, each with their own benefits , drawbacks and typical functions . Desktop A computer suitable for use at an ordinary desk. They are bulky and not so easy to move . Individual components (e.g. graphics card) can be upgraded over time . Desktops are versatile , they allow the user to carry out a range of activities , including document creation, data manipulation, game playing, design and communication facilities for personal or business purposes. Tablet / Laptop A portable type of computer. Many modern laptops can also fold back, effectively turning them into a tablet with a screen-based virtual keyboard. They can perform many of the functions of the traditional PC, but the screen size can be restrictive , especially if several documents need to be open at the same time. Because it can be transported through public spaces, loss or theft is more likely. Smartphone Embedded Systems Smartphones can be used to run a range of applications including email, social media, videos and music. However, they can negatively affect social interaction (e.g. by using them and ignoring people around you) and reduce spatial awareness when being used. Security is another issue as they can be easily lost or stolen . Security software for phones is not as secure as other computer systems so sensitive data should not be held on smartphones. An embedded system is when a smaller computer system is installed within a larger device , such as a washing machine, traffic light or car. Embedded systems have a dedicated purpose and often run in real-time . The internet of things (IoT) describes a global network of connected objects that were previously 'dumb', such as smart bulbs, smart plugs and thermostats. Mainframe Mainframes are huge and very powerful computers that are reliable . Mainframes are used to process large amounts of data and can be used to solve scientific and engineering problems that require complex calculations with large datasets (e.g. weather forecasting or scientific simulations). ​ Mainframes are reliable and secure because they have large backup capabilities . Mainframes are very expensive and require teams of experts to oversee them, and so are used only by organisations that need to process very large amounts of data quickly, such as banks and airlines . Quantum These are still experimental and in development . They work with quantum bits (qubits) which, unlike binary, are not limited to just two states (0 or 1). Qubits represent atomic particles, which can be in several different states at the same time . ​ A fully working quantum computer would potentially be able to process data and perform calculations millions of times faster than currently available computers. Q uesto's Q uestions 1.3 - Computer System Types: ​ 1. For each type of computer system , make a list of benefits , drawbacks and possible uses . a. Desktop [6 ] b. Tablet / Laptop [6 ] c. Smartphone [6 ] d. Embedded System [6 ] e. Mainframe [6 ] f. Quantum Computer [6 ] ​ 2. Suggest and justify which type of computer system is most suitable for the following scenarios: a. Updating a spreadsheet while on a train. [3 ] b. Forecasting the next week’s weather. [3 ] c. A PE teacher recording sports day race times. [3 ] d. Playing a new video game on maximum settings. [3 ] 1.2 - Computer Components Topic List 1.4 - Connectivity

  • 1.3 - Primary Storage - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.3: Primary Storage (Memory) Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Storage in a computer system is split into two categories. Primary Storage: Very quick to access because it is attached to the motherboard . Typically smaller in storage size . Sometimes called ‘main memory’ . Secondary Storage: Slower to access because it is not directly embedded on the motherboard . Typically larger in storage size . Sometimes called ‘backing storage’ . Storage is also split into two types - volatile and non-volatile . ​ Volatile storage is temporary - data is lost whenever the power is turned off .​ Example: RAM Non-volatile storage saves the data even when not being powered . Data can be stored long-term and accessed when the computer is switched on . Example: ROM Types of Primary Storage (Memory) Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is volatile (temporary) storage that stores all programs that are currently running . RAM also stores parts of the operating system to be accessed by the CPU. ​ RAM is made up of a large number of storage locations, each can be identified by a unique address . Read-Only Memory (ROM) Cache Memory ROM is non-volatile storage that cannot be changed . ​ ROM stores the boot program / BIOS for when the computer is switched on. The BIOS then loads up the operating system to take over managing the computer. Cache memory is volatile (temporary) storage that stores data that is frequently accessed . It is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM. ​ The three levels of cache memory are explained in more detail in 1.5 . RAM ( R andom A ccess M emory) ROM ( R ead O nly M emory) Cache Memory Flash Memory Flash memory is editable so it can be read and written to . It is also non-volatile so it can be used for long-term data storage even when the system is not powered on. Flash memory is also used for secondary storage devices like USB sticks and solid-state drives - see 1.4 . Virtual Memory When a computer system is running slowly and RAM is near full capacity , the operating system will convert storage space on the drive into temporary memory . ​ This virtual memory slows the system down because it takes longer to access the drive than it does to manage RAM. ​ Transferring data between RAM and virtual memory is called paging . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.3 - Primary Storage (Memory): ​ 1. Describe the differences between primary and secondary storage . This could be done in a table with the column headings 'access speed' , 'storage size' and 'also known as' . [ 6 ] ​ 2. Explain the difference between volatile and non-volatile storage . State an example of both types. [ 4 ] ​ 3. For each type of memory below, describe it and state what information is stored within it: a . Random Access Memory (RAM) [3 ] b. Read-Only Memory (ROM) [ 3 ] c. Cache memory [ 3 ] d. Flash memory [ 3 ] e. Virtual memory [ 3 ] 1.2 - FDE Cycle 1.4 - Secondary Storage Theory Topics

  • 4.1 - Security Threats - OCR GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    4.1: Security Threats Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2020 Types of Malware ​Malware is any type of harmful program that seeks to damage or gain unauthorised access to your computer system. Virus A virus can replicate itself and spread from system to system by attaching itself to infected files . A virus is only activated when opened by a human . Once activated, a virus can change data or corrupt a system so that it stops working . Worm A worm can replicate itself and spread from system to system by finding weaknesses in software . A worm does not need an infected file or human interaction to spread. A worm can spread very quickly across a network once it has infiltrated it. Trojan A trojan is a harmful program that looks like legitimate software so users are tricked into installing it . A trojan secretly gives the attacker backdoor access to the system . Trojans do not self replicate or infect other files. Spyware Spyware secretly records the activities of a user on a computer. The main aim of spyware is to record usernames, passwords and credit card information . All recorded information is secretly passed back to the attacker to use. Keylogger A keylogger secretly records the key presses of a user on a computer. Data is stored or sent back to the attacker. The main aim of a keylogger is to record usernames, passwords and credit card information . Keyloggers can be downloaded or plugged into the USB port . Ransomware Ransomware locks files on a computer system using encryption so that a user can no longer access them. The attacker demands money from the victim to decrypt (unlock) the data . ? ? ? ? Attackers usually use digital currencies like bitcoin which makes it hard to trace them. SQL Injection SQL ( Structured Query Language ) is a programming language used for manipulating data in databases . ​ A SQL injection is when a malicious SQL query (command) is entered into a data input box on a website. ​ If the website is insecure then the SQL query can trick the website into giving unauthorised access to the website’s database . ​ An SQL injection can be used to view and edit the contents of a database or even gain administrator privileges . ' or 1 = 1 DoS Attack A DoS (Denial of Service ) attack is when a computer repeatedly sends requests to a server to overload the system . A server overload will slow the system and may take websites offline temporarily. ​ A DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service ) attack is a coordinated attack using a botnet of infected systems to overload a server with requests . A botnet is a large group of devices controlled and used maliciously by an attacker. Brute-Force Attack Every possible combination is tested in order from start to finish . This is not a quick method but it should break the password eventually and can be sped up if multiple computer systems are used at the same time. Social Engineering Social engineering means to trick others into revealing their personal data by posing as a trusted source . For example, impersonating an IT technician of a school via email and asking for a student's username and password . Interception This is when data packets on a network are intercepted by a third party (e.g. a hacker) and copied to a different location than the intended destination. ​ Software called packet sniffers are used to intercept and analyse data packets. 4.1 - Security Threats: 1. What is malware ? [ 2 ] 2a. Describe three characteristics of a virus . [3 ] 2b. Describe three characteristics of a worm . [3 ] 2c. What is a trojan ? [ 3 ] 2d. Describe how spyware and keyloggers work. [ 4 ] 2e. Explain how ransomware works and why it is difficult to trace attackers . [ 3 ] 2f. In your opinion, which malware do you think is the most dangerous and why ? [ 2 ] 3. Describe what an SQL injection is and how an attacker would use it. [ 3 ] ​ 4a. Describe what a DoS attack is and its impact . [2 ] 4b. Describe how a DDoS attack is different to a DoS attack . [2 ] ​ 5a. Describe a brute-force attack. [ 2 ] 5b. Describe social engineering and give an example of when it might be used . [2 ] 5c. Describe interception . [2 ] Q uesto's Q uestions 3.2b - Protocols & Layers Theory Topics 4.2 - Preventing Vulnerabilities

  • Unit 2 - Global Information - Cambridge Technicals IT Level 3 | CSNewbs

    OCR Cambridge Technicals IT Level 3 Unit 2: Global Information These pages are based on content from the OCR Cambridge Technicals 2016 Level 3 IT specification . This website is in no way affiliated with OCR . LO1 (Devices & The Internet ) 1.1 - Holders of Information 1.2 - Storage Media 1.3 - Access & Storage Devices 1.4 - Internet Connections 1.5 - WWW Technologies 1.6 - Information Formats 1.7 & 1.8 - Internet Pros & Cons LO2 (Information Styles & Quality ) 2.1 - Information Styles 2.2 - Information Classification 2.3 - Quality of Information 2.4 - Information Management LO3 (Categories & Analysis ) 3.1 - Data vs. Information 3.2 & 3.3 - Information Categories 3.4 - Stages of Data Analysis 3.5 - Data Analysis Tools 3.6 - Information Systems LO4 (Legislation ) 4.1 - UK Legislation 4.2 - Global Legislation 4.3 - Green IT LO5 (Flow of Information ) 5.1 - Data Types & Sources 5.2 - Data Flow Diagrams LO6 (Security & Protection ) 6.1 - Security Principles 6.2 - Risks 6.3 - Impacts 6.4 - Protection Measures 6.5 - Physical Protection 6.6 - Logical Protection

  • Python | 3a - Data Types | CSNewbs

    top Python 3a - Data Types Data Types in Python If you are a Computer Science student you need to know about the different data types that are used in programming. ​ ​String – A sequence of alphanumeric characters (e.g. “Hello!” or “Toy Story 4” or “Boeing 747” ) Integer – A whole number (e.g. 1470 or 0 or -34) Float (also called Real ) – A decimal number (e.g. -32.12 or 3.14) Boolean – A logical operation (True or False) Character – A single alphanumeric character (e.g. “a” or “6” or “?”) [ Not used in Python as it would just be a string with a length of 1] Converting to Another Data Type Converting a variable from one data type to another is called casting . Casting Commands ​ str (variable_name) converts a variable to a string . ​ int (variable_name) converts a variable to a integer . ​ float (variable_name) converts a variable to a float (decimal number). An integer (or float ) value may be cast into a string so that it can be used with + as part of a sentence to avoid spaces . total = 45 print ( "You owe £" , total , "in total." ) print ( "You owe £" + str (total) , "in total." ) = You owe £ 45 in total. You owe £45 in total. When dividing an integer the answer is automatically given as a decimal number (float ), even if it is .0 (e.g. 10 / 2 would give 5.0). ​ Casting a float (also known as real) number into an integer using int() will remove the decimal . total = 100/10 print ( "The answer is" , total ) print ( "The answer is" , int(total) ) The answer is 10.0 The answer is 10 = Data Types Task 1 ( Time) Write an input line with int to ask the current hour . Write another input line with int to ask the current minute . ​ Write a print line with str() that outputs this as a clock time. Example solution: What is the hour? 12 What is the minute? 44 The time is 12:44 Data Types Task 2 ( Decimal ) Write an input line with int to ask for any number . ​ Use float() in a print line to output number as a decimal. Example solution: Enter any number: 456 456.0 ⬅ Section 2 Practice Tasks 3b - Simple Calculations ➡

  • Python | 4c - Logical Operators | CSNewbs

    top Python 4c - Logical Operators AND Operator The AND operator is used to execute certain code if more than one thing is true . ​ AND is commonly used with account logins - both the username AND the password must be correct . ​ The example below requires both a secret word and a secret number to be correct: print ( "To enter you need the secret word and the secret number!" ) word = input ( "What is the secret word? " ) number = int ( input ( "What is the secret number? " )) if word == "solitude" and number == 2011: print ( "Correct! You may enter!" ) else : print ( "Incorrect! Get out of here!" ) If no part or only some of the if statement is true then the indented code will not run : To enter you need the secret word and the secret number! What is the secret word? solitude What is the secret number? 4503 Incorrect! Get out of here! To enter you need the secret word and the secret number! What is the secret word? windhelm What is the secret number? 1021 Incorrect! Get out of here! Only If all parts of the if statement are true will the indented code be executed : To enter you need the secret word and the secret number! What is the secret word? solitude What is the secret number? 2011 Correct! You may enter! Logical Operators Task 1 ( Three Easy Questions) Ask the user three easy questions and print a special response if they get all three correct . ​ Use the and operator to see if their answer for all each of the questions is correct. ​ You must use a unique variable nam e for each of your inputs (it can't be 'answer' for all three, for example). Example solutions: What is the capital of Germany? Berlin What is the chemical formula for water? H20 What year did World War Two end? 1945 You absolute genius! What is the capital of Germany? Vienna What is the chemical formula for water? W20 What year did World War Two end? 1945 Bit awkward, I thought you'd do better... OR Operator The OR operator is used to execute certain code if one of several statements is true . The program below is checking if either a , e , i , o or u were entered. letter = input ( "Enter a letter: " ) ​ if letter == "a" or letter == "e" or letter == "i" or letter == "o" or letter == "u" : print ( "You entered a vowel." ) else : print ( "You entered a consonant." ) Enter a letter: f You entered a consonant. Enter a letter: e You entered a vowel. It is important that you re-write the variable and operator (e.g. letter ==) each time you use 'or' . It will not work if you just write: if letter == “a” or “e” or “i” or “o” or “u”: Logical Operators Task 2 ( Twins?) Ask the user to enter their favourite colour and then ask them their age . If their favourite colour is the same as yours AND their age is the same as yours then print “Snap! Are you my twin?” . If only one of the statements is true (use the OR operator) then print “Spooky! You’re a bit like me.” . ​ Add an else statement to print “We’re not so similar, you and I.” if there's nothing in common. Example solutions: What's your favourite colour? green What's your age? 15 Snap! Are you my twin? What's your favourite colour? blue What's your age? 15 Spooky! You're a bit like me. What's your favourite colour? red What's your age? 16 We're not so similar, you and I. ⬅ 4b - Mathematical Opera tors Sectio n 4 Practice Tasks ➡

  • Python | Extended Task 3 | CSNewbs

    Extended Task 3 Hi, Susanna here, ​ I want to make a blackjack-like program that I can play for fun at home in between revising for Computer Science. ​ The aim of my blackjack game is to get as close to 21 as possible with the most number of cards, without going over. ​ So... The user can choose whether to be hit with a new card (a number between 1 and 8) or fold and stop. Each number they are dealt adds up to their total . If the total goes over 21, then they lose .​ If they bust (when over 21) or folded then their final number and their number of cards is displayed . Blackjack For this task, you will need to create a document and include the following sections (with screenshots where appropriate): ​ An introduction to explain the Purpose of your program . A List of Requirements for a successful program. Screenshots of your code (with comments in your code to show understanding). Testing – Create a plan to show how you will test your program and then explanations of any errors that you found and how they were fixed . An Evaluation of what worked, what didn’t, and how you met each of your requirements from your original list. Also, discuss further improvements that you could have made to improve your program. Example solution: Helpful reminders for this task: Think about the type of loop that you need. Will you need more than one loop? What variables will you need? Remember to use an input . What will you ask the user? How will you use their response? Remember to use ‘import random’ and randint to create a random number . What outputs do you need and when? What should you display… After each hand? At the beginning? At the end? ⬅ Extended Task 2 (Lottery) Extended Task 4 (Vet Surgery) ➡

  • HTML Guide | CSNewbs

    When you see the checklist icon, complete the task in order to make your own HTML web page. HTML Guide 1. Setting up the web page 2. Essential tags 3. Text tags 4. Hyperlinks 5. Images 6. Organisation tags 7. Head tags 8. Videos 9. Colours & Fonts 10. More pages Watch on YouTube: These steps will show you how to make a HTML fanpage so get thinking of an appropriate topic - maybe your favourite book, movie or sports team? Download Notepad++ at home

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