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  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 5.3 - Threats | CSNewbs

    5.3 - Threats Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What are the 7 threats to computer systems? Phishing Misleading individuals or organisations into giving up sensitive information (such as passwords or bank details), often through the use of emails . Hacking Exploiting weaknesses in a system or network to create, view, modify or delete files without permission. Similar to data theft - illegally removing copies of personal or company data from computer systems. :( Trojan Appears to be a useful or well-known program but when downloaded and installed it secretly gives the attacker a ' backdoor ' to your system. Through this backdoor the attacker can access data without the user knowing. Football 2020 FREE Interception Data packets on a network are intercepted by a third party (e.g. hacker) and copied, edited or transferred to a different location than the intended destination. Eavesdropping Intercepting , in real-time , private communication traffic such as instant messages or video calls . Social Engineering Tricking individuals into giving sensitive information , e.g. by claiming to be from the IT department and asking for their password and username to check for viruses. Virus A virus can replicate itself and spread from system to system by attaching itself to infected files that are then downloaded and opened. Once activated, a virus can modify data or corrupt a system so that it stops working. Q uesto's Q uestions 5.3 - Threats: ​ 1. An IT company is making an information booklet about the different types of online threats . Describe each type of threat: a. Phishing b. Hacking / Data Theft c. Trojan d. Interception e. Eavesdropping f. Social Engineering g. Virus [2 each ] 5.2 - Operational Issues Topic List 5.4 - Physical Security

  • 3.7 - The Internet - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.7: The Internet Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is the internet? The internet is a global network of interconnected networks . ​ The world wide web (WWW ) is not the same as the internet. It is a way of accessing information , using protocols such as HTTPS to view web pages . What is a web browser? A web browser is software that uses the HTTP or HTTPS protocol to access and display web pages . ​ Popular web browsers include Google Chrome , Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge . What is a URL? URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator . ​ Web pages are accessed by typing a URL (a web address) into the address bar of a web browser . The URL is the complete address that matches an IP address where the website is stored. ​ We use URLs because they are easier to remember than IP addresses, for example, 'twitter.com' is simpler than '199.59.149.165'. What is the structure of a URL? A URL is structured into different segments: What is a DNS Server? ​A DNS ( Domain Name System ) server stores a list of domain names and a list of corresponding IP addresses where the website is stored. ​ The first thing to understand is that every web page has a domain name that is easy for humans to remember and type in (such as www.csnewbs.com ) as well as a related IP address (such as 65.14.202.32) which is a unique address for the device that the web page is stored on. The steps taken to display a web page: 1. A domain name is typed into the address bar of a browser . 2. The browser checks a local (cached) host file to check if it already holds the IP address, but if it doesn't... 3. A query is sent to the local DNS server for the corresponding IP address of the domain name . www.facebook.com 4. The local DNS server will check if it holds an IP address corresponding to that domain name. If it does it passes the IP address to your browser . 66.220.144.0 5. The browser then connects to the IP address of the server and accesses the web site . If the local DNS server does not hold the IP address then the query is passed to another DNS server at a higher level until the IP address is resolved. If the IP address is found, the address is passed on to DNS servers lower in the hierarchy until it is passed to your local DNS server and then to your browser. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.7 - The Internet: ​ 1a. Describe the difference between the internet and the world wide web ( WWW ). [ 2 ] 1b. What is the purpose of a web browser ? [ 2 ] 1c. Why do humans use URLs instead of IP addresses? [ 1 ] 1d. Write out the following URL and label each section: https://www.skynews.co.uk/worldnews/ukstockmarket [ 6 ] ​ 2a. What is a DNS server ? [ 2 ] 2b. Describe, using a mix of text and icons / images , how a DNS server is used to display a web page . [5 ] 2c. Describe how a DNS server searches for an IP address if it is not found on the local DNS server . [ 2 ] 3.6 - 7-Layer OSI Model Theory Topics 3.8 - Cyber Threats

  • 2.1 - Logical Operators - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    2.1: Logical Operators & Truth Tables Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a logical operator? Inside of each computer system are millions of transistors . These are tiny switches that can either be turned on (represented in binary by the number 1 ) or turned off (represented by 0 ). ​ Logical operators are symbols used to represent circuits of transistors within a computer. The four most common operators are: ​ NOT AND OR XOR What is a truth table? A truth table is a visual way of displaying all possible outcomes of a logical operator. The input and output values in a truth table must be a Boolean value - usually 0 or 1 but occasionally True or False. NOT A NOT logical operator will produce an output which is the opposite of the input . ​ NOT is represented by a horizontal line . Boolean Algebra Notation written as NOT A A Truth Table AND An AND logical operator will output 1 only if both inputs are also 1 . ​ AND is represented by a full stop. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A AND B A.B Truth Table OR An OR logical operator will output 1 if either input is 1 . ​ OR is represented by a plus. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A OR B A+B Truth Table XOR An XOR (exclusive OR) logical operator will output 1 if the inputs are different and output 0 if the inputs are the same . ​ XOR is represented by a circled plus. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A XOR B A B Truth Table Multiple Operations Exam questions will ask you complete truth tables that use more than one logical operator . Work out each column in turn from left to right and look carefully at which column you need to use. Simplification You may be asked to use a truth table to simplify an expression . ​ This is actually really easy. Once you've completed the truth table see if any columns match the final expression . A+B and A+(A+B) both result in the same values , therefore: A+(A+B) can be simplified as just A+B. Q uesto's Q uestions 2.1 - Logical Operators: ​ 1. Copy and complete the following truth tables: ​ ​ ​ 1b. Simplify the expression in the second truth table. ​ 2a. A cinema uses a computer system to monitor how many seats have been allocated for upcoming movies. If both the premium seats and the standard seats are sold out then the system will display a message. State the type of logical operator in this example. 2b. For the more popular movies, the cinema's computer system will also display a message if either the premium seats or the standard seats have exclusively been sold out. However, it will not output a message when both have been sold out. State the type of logical operator in this example. 1.6 - Additional Hardware 2.2 - Boolean Algebra Theory Topics

  • 4.2 - Data Structures | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 4.2 - Data Structures Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.2 - Data Structures: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 4.1e - Shifts & Masks Theory Topics 4.3a - Logical Operators & Truth Tables

  • 1.1a - The CPU - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 1.1a: The CPU Specification: J277 The Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) is the most important component in any computer system. ​ Like many components of a computer, it is attached to the motherboard . ​ The purpose of the CPU is to process data and instructions by constantly repeating the fetch - execute cycle . CPU Components The Control Unit (CU ) sends control signals to direct the operation of the CPU . Control signals and timing signals are sent to the ALU and other components such as RAM . It also decodes instructions as part of the F-E cycle . ALU stands for ‘ Arithmetic and Logic Unit ’. It performs simple calculations and logical operations . A register is a temporary storage space for one instruction or address . ​ Different registers are used during the FE cycle . Cache memory is used to temporarily store data that is frequently accessed . ​ Cache memory is split into different levels . Cache is slower to access than the registers but much faster than RAM . Computer Architecture The way a computer is designed and structured is known as its architecture . ​ The most common type of computer architecture is Von Neumann . Von Neumann Architecture This architecture is named after John von Neumann who developed the concept of a stored program computer in the 1940s. Before being able to store programs in memory , instructions had to be manually input by a human. ​ A computer with Von Neumann architecture stores both program instructions and data in the same memory (RAM ). Other architectures like Harvard have two separate memories - one for program instructions and another for data. ​ Data is transferred between components on pathways called buses . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1a - The CPU: ​ 1a. What does 'CPU ' stand for ? [1 ] 1b. What is the purpose of the CPU ? [ 2 ] ​ 2. Draw a diagram of the CPU , and l abel the four main components . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Describe the purpose of: a. The Control Unit [ 2 ] b. The ALU [ 2 ] c. The registers [ 2 ] d. Cache memory [ 2 ] ​ 4. Describe the key feature of Von Neumann architecture . [ 2 ] 1.1b - Registers & FE Cycle Theory Topics

  • 8.4 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    8.4: Sorting & Searching Algorithms Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Merge Sort Merge sort is a sorting algorithm based on the idea of ‘divide and conquer ’. A merge sort divides a list into half , again and again until each data item is separate . Then the items are combined in the same way as they were divided , but now in the correct order . When the individual lists are all merged together as one list again, then the data is in order and the algorithm will end . Bubble Sort This algorithm is based on the comparison of adjacent data elements . ​ Data elements are swapped if they are not in the correct order . A bubble sort is not suitable for large sets of data. Linear Search A linear search is the most simple search algorithm. ​ Each data item is searched in order from the first value to the last as if they were all laid out in a line . The list does not have to be in any order before it is searched . This search is also known as a sequential search because the list is searched in a sequence from start to end. For large lists , this search is not very efficient . Binary Search A binary search is a much more efficient searching algorithm as it generally searches through fewer data and is often much quicker - especially for large data sets. In a binary search, the middle point of the data is selected with each iteration and many data items can be ignored. However, the list of data must already be sorted in order before a binary search can take place. Q uesto's Q uestions 8.3 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms: ​ Linear Search Explain step-by-step how the number 8 would be found in the following list using a linear search : 12, 5, 3, 2, 8, 19, 14, 6 [4 ] ​ Binary Search Explain step-by-step how the number 2 would be found in the following list using a binary search : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 [6 ] ​ Merge Sort Explain step-by-step how a merge sort would sort the following list of numbers: 4, 8, 5, 1, 3, 6, 7, 2 [6 ] ​ Bubble Sort Explain step-by-step how a bubble sort would sort the following list of numbers: 3, 2, 6, 4, 1, 4 [6 ] Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube 8.3 - Writing Algorithms Theory Topics 8.5 - Validation & Verification

  • Greenfoot Guide #6 | Counter | CSNewbs

    6. The Counter Greenfoot Tutorial 1. Import the Counter The counter class can be imported into your Greenfoot world. ​ Select Edit in the main Greenfoot window then ' Import Class... ' and choose Counter . Watch on YouTube: The Counter class will appear in the Actor classes list . Right-click on the Counter, choose the ' new Counter() ' option and drag it into the world. ​ Now right-click on the background and select 'Save the World' once you have dragged the counter into the world. 2. Increase the Counter by 1 Two lines of code are required to increase the counter . ​ Add this code when your main character is removing the collectible object . This code allows your main character to access the 'add' method from the Counter class . ​ The method 'add ' just increases the value of the counter by the number in the brackets . ​ To decrease the counter , type a negative value in the brackets, such as -1 . < Part 5 - Play Sounds 3. Compile and Run Click the Compile button at the top of the code editor . ​ Then you can go back to the main Greenfoot window and click Run to test if your counter increases . Click on me if you've got an error that you're stuck with. Part 7 - Extension Ideas >

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 3.5 - Business Systems | CSNewbs

    3.5 - Business Systems Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Businesses have developed many systems to manage and manipulate data and aid business practices. Management Information System (MIS) An MIS is used to collect, store, analyse and present data for an organisation. The system processes a large amount of data and organises it (such as in databases) so that it can be used for decision making and general data analysis . An efficient MIS can be used to display the financial status of an organisation, highlight areas of improvement and generate sales forecasts based on current data. Specifically, a bank could use an MIS for: Looking at numbers of customers that visit each branch. Forecasting takings based on historical data. Profiling customers. Identifying customers who haven’t saved recently to target them for email. Benefits of an MIS: ​ Integrated system: ​ A Management Information System shares a large amount of data from multiple departments within an organisation to produce accurate reports. For example, financial data can be used to generate accurate pay slips. Decision Making: An MIS can be used to inform an organisation's decision making by highlighting areas that need improvement within the company. Powerful analysis: ​An MIS will use large data sets to provide accurate data analysis that can be used in many different ways by an organisation. Trends and patterns can be identified easily. Backup capabilities: ​ Data can be stored centrally and backed up easily if a disaster occurs. Limitations of an MIS: ​ Cost and installation: ​ An MIS is an expensive tool that needs to be professionally set up and requires technical knowledge to maintain. Requires accurate data: ​ If any data is incorrect or out of date then the analysis will consequently be inaccurate . Potentially disastrous decisions could be made as a result of incorrect data. Training: Employees will need to be trained to use the software accurately for maximum efficiency. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) A CRM system is used to improve the relationship between an organisation and its customers . It can be used to increase customer loyalty with those who already subscribe to their services as well as used to try and increase the customer base by attracting new customers. The ultimate goal of a CRM system is to increase and retain customers which will result in more sales and higher profits . Examples of CRM systems: Marketing teams tracking which promotions customers are responding well to . Customer service teams responding quickly to customer complaints , through a variety of channels (such as social media, emails and telephone calls). Marketing teams rewarding customers who have spent a certain amount in a year. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) A standard operating procedure is a comprehensive step-by-step guide of how to carry out a business routine. An organisation will create an SOP to abide by legal requirements and high company standards . SOPs must be followed in exactly the same method each time and by each employee to ensure the same outcome and remove any inconsistencies . ​ Benefits of Standard Operating Procedures: ​ Ensures consistency: ​ The outcome should be the same each time when following SOPs which ensures an efficient result . Fewer errors: ​ If all employees follow the SOP carefully then there should be no errors . Meets legal requirements : The SOPs will be designed to meet up-to-date legislation as well as any standards that the company have set. Limitations of Standard Operating Procedures: ​ Inflexible practice: ​ A lot of time may be spent on creating the paperwork and admin instead of the actual job. Legal updates: ​ The SOPs must be periodically reviewed and updated to take into account any new laws . Sales Ordering Process (SOP) This is the process of a customer buying a product or service and the company reviewing the purchase. 1. The customer orders a product or service, usually via email or telephone conversation. 2. The order is confirmed and a sales order is created. This is a document that lists the customer’s requirements and exactly what they have purchased. 3. The sales order is sent to the relevant departments (e.g. production, finance and delivery) so they can fulfil the customer’s request . Once the order has been completed the customer will be sent an invoice for payment . The SOP is important as it creates a clear plan for ordering a product. Each department can use the sales order to know exactly what jobs to perform. Help Desk Help desk software is used to provide real-time support to a user from a trained member of staff to overcome a technical problem . The customer logs an issue in the form of a ticket and is assigned a technician . As the technician tries to communicate with the user and solve the issue they must follow a service level agreement that defines the high standards the technician must keep to. When the problem has been solved the ticket is closed. All tickets are archived so that persistent problems can be checked. If Help Desk software is used within a company to report and solve issues it is known as in-house . Benefits of Help Desk software: ​ Keeping Track: ​C ustomers can see that their issues are being dealt with and administrators have clear records of the problem. Audit Logs: All tickets are archived so if a problem occurs on the same machine the previous solution can be attempted again . Communication : Formal messages between the customer and the administrator mean there are no mixed messages and a running dialogue can take place as the problem is fixed. Limitations of Help Desk software: ​ Cost : Setting up the necessary software and hardware and paying for an administrator to run the system can cost a large amount of money. Availability issues: ​ A technician might not be available 24/7 or during holidays. Formal structure: ​ This is a formal system that takes time to record and respond to which might annoy staff when it is only a minor issue to be fixed, like resetting a password. Knowledge: ​ Technicians need technical expertise regarding the company's computer systems and need to be able to fix both hardware and software issues. This might require additional training every few years. Ticket Response Time: ​ Administrators must ensure that all tickets are read and responded to in reasonable time so that productivity in the company is not affected. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.5 - Business Systems: 1a. What is the purpose of an MIS ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe 3 ways a bank could use an MIS . [ 3 ] 1c. Describe the benefits and limitations of an MIS . [10 ] ​ 2a. What is the purpose of a CRM ? [ 4 ] 2b. Describe 3 ways that a CRM could be used by a company . [6 ] ​ 3a. What are standard operating procedures (SOP ) and why are they used? [ 4 ] 3b. Describe the benefits and limitations of SOPs . [ 10 ] ​ 4a. What is the sales ordering process ( SOP )? [ 2 ] 4b. Why is the SOP important in a company? [ 2 ] 4c. Summarise the 3 stages of the SOP . [ 4 ] ​ 5a. What is the purpose of help desk software? [ 2 ] 5b. Explain how help desk works , including tickets , technicians and service level agreements . [3 ] 5c. Describe the benefits and limitations of Help Desks . [ 10 ] 3.4 - Connection Methods Topic List 4.1 - Communication Methods

  • 3.1 - Data vs Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    3.1 - Data vs. Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The terms 'data ' and 'information ' are often used interchangeably but they do not mean the same thing . The term 'data ' refers to unprocessed facts or statistics that have no context . ​ For example, 53% is data - it is a statistic that has no context. The term 'information ' refers to data that has been processed , organised and structured into context . ​ For example, 53% of pumpkin stock was sold in 2019 is information - it is data that has been given context (meaning). Data Processing Information Q uesto's Q uestions 3.1 - Data vs. Information: ​ 1. Describe , using examples , the difference between data and information . [4 ] 2.4 - Information Management 3.2 & 3.3 - Information Categories Topic List

  • 5.1 - Operating Systems - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    5.1: Operating Systems Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 What is an Operating System? An operating system (OS ) is software that helps to manage the resources of a computer system and provide the interface between the user and the computer’s hardware . ​ There are five main functions of an operating system: Memory Management & Multitasking All programs must be temporarily stored in RAM for the CPU to be able to process them. ​ The OS transfers programs in and out of memory from the hard drive (or virtual memory ) when processing is required - programs are removed from RAM when closed to free up space for other tasks. ​ The operating system can only perform one process at a time , but through memory management it can appear that more than one process is being executed - this is called multitasking . Peripherals Management & Drivers A peripheral is an external device connected to a computer system to input or output data . Data is transferred between external devices and the processor and this process needs to be managed by the operating system . ​ A device driver is a program that provides an interface for the OS to interact and communicate with an external device . Drivers are hardware dependent and OS-specific . The driver translates the OS’ instructions into a format the specific hardware can understand . Because the CPU and the peripheral will process data at different speeds , a buffer is typically used to temporarily store data until it can be processed . User Management The OS allows users to create , manage and delete individual accounts . User accounts can be granted different access rights such as an administrator or guest . The OS will manage security settings such as allowing passwords to be reset and can also be used to monitor login activity . File Management The operating system creates and maintains a logical management system to organise files and directories (folders ). ​ File management allows files to be named , renamed , opened , copied , moved , saved , searched for , sorted and deleted . It also allows users to set access rights for specific files and to view file properties . User Interface The final function of an operating system is to provide a user interface , allowing a human to interact with the computer system . The way in which a user can navigate a computer system is known as human-computer interaction ( HCI ). Graphical User Interface (GUI) The most common type of user interface is a graphical user interface (GUI ) which can be presented in the following ways: Icons are displayed to represent shortcuts to applications and files. Multiple windows can be opened at the same time and switched between. A folder and file system is displayed and manipulated allowing for copying , searching , sorting and deleting data. The interface can be customised , such as changing font sizes and the desktop background . The taskbar allows shortcuts to be pinned for quick access . Menus can be opened from the Start button to display files and shortcuts. System settings can be accessed such as network and hardware options . Command-Line Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a command-line interface (CLI ). This type of interface is entirely text-based and requires users to interact with the system by typing commands . This is a complicated process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only experts who have been trained t o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface displays data in a series of linked menus . Examples include cash machines (ATMs) and old iPods . ​ This type of interface is generally user friendly and easy to use as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be annoying to find specific data through a large number of menus without a search feature. Touch-Sensitive Interface Another type of user interface is a touch-sensitive interface , used with smartphones and tablets . ​ A human interacts with the device by pressing on a touchscreen , making it very intuitive and suitable for most users without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may not work with dirty or wet fingers and it will take longer to write text compared to using a keyboard. Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be controlled by speaking commands aloud to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's Alexa devices, Apple's Siri technology and Google Home . ​ This interface is intuitive , can be used hands-free and helps to speed up processes . However commands may be misheard or limited in what can be performed. Q uesto's Q uestions 5.1 - Operating Systems: ​ 1. Describe each role of the operating system : Providing a user interface [ 3 ] Memory management (and multitasking) [ 3 ] Peripheral management (and drivers) [ 3 ] User management [ 3 ] File management [ 3 ] ​ 2. Describe 5 different ways the operating system can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) . [5 ] ​ 3. Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of using the following types of human-computer interaction (HCI) : a. Command-Line interface [ 4 ] b. Touch-Sensitive interface [ 4 ] c. Menu-Driven interface [ 4 ] d. Voice-Driven interface [ 4 ] 4.2 - Preventing Vulnerabilities Theory Topics 5.2 - Utility Software

  • 1.6 - Additional Hardware - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.6: Additional Hardware Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + 1.6a - Internal Hardware Motherboard The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer , unique for each device. It holds and connects the different components together , allowing data to be transferred between them. Components such as the CPU and ROM are directly attached to the motherboard. The motherboard has expansion slots for additional cards (i.e. sound cards) and ports (i.e. USB). Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Sound Card A GPU is a microprocessor that performs complex calculations to generate graphical images to be displayed on a monitor . ​ There are two types of GPU, integrated GPUs within the motherboard circuitry or dedicated GPUs on an additional card (known as a 'graphics card'). ​ An integrated GPU is cheaper and generates less power because it uses the RAM of the computer . Integrated GPUs are used in tablets and laptops as they generate less heat and are optimal for general computing uses (e.g. web browsing or watching movies). ​ A dedicated GPU is more expensive and generates more heat, often requiring a fan because it contains its own memory . Dedicated cards are used by animation professionals and professional gamers who require the best graphics. Sound cards convert analogue sound waves into digital data (binary) when inputting audio through a microphone.​ 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 Sound cards also convert digital data (binary) into analogue sound waves to output audio through speakers or headphones. 1.6b - Embedded Systems Example: A washing machine has a control chip that manages the different program cycles. An embedded system is a computer system built into a larger machine to provide a means of control . ​ Embedded systems perform a specific pre-programmed task which is stored in ROM . ​ An embedded system uses a combination of hardware and software . Example: A traffic light has a control chip that determines when to change to a green or red light. 1.6c - Input & Output Devices Input devices are used by humans to interact with a computer system , through methods such as text , voice or touch . ​ Output devices show the result of computer processing , such as sound , printed text or a visual display on a monitor. ​ Storage devices , such as a USB stick or an external hard drive, are neither input nor output devices - see 1.4 . Input Devices These are just some of the more common input devices . A mouse and a keyboard have been described in further detail. Are there any devices below you haven't heard of before? Mouse Benefits: Easy to navigate a graphical user interface. A wireless mouse takes up less space . Faster to select options (e.g. in a video game). Drawbacks: Difficult to use for people with restricted hand movement . Difficult to use on some surfaces . Other input devices: ​ Scanner Controller Microphone Webcam Chip Reader OCR Scanner OMR Scanner Barcode Scanner Graphics Tablet Sensors (e.g. light or temperature) Touch Screen Remote Control Biometric Scanner (e.g. fingerprint or iris) Concept Keyboard Sip / Puff Switch Keyboard Benefits: Quick to input text . Easy to use with a familiar layout on most keyboards. Keys can be customised and shortcuts can be used . Drawbacks: Takes up a large amount of space on a desk. Difficult for people to use with restricted hand movement or poor eyesight . Output Devices Monitor These are just some of the more common output devices . ​ A monitor and a printer have been described in further detail. Are there any devices below you haven't heard of before? Other output devices: ​ ​ Plotter Speakers Projector Alarm Light Headphones Touch Screen Braille Terminal What is it? A monitor is required to see the result of human input and computer processing . Monitors can be bought in different sizes and resolutions for a range of purposes such as video editing or playing games . Monitors settings can be changed to alter the brightness or contrast . Printer What is it? A printer uses ink or toner to print a document (such as text or images) onto paper . Inkjet printers use ink cartridges , are generally slower and print in a lower quality . Laser printers use toner cartridges and are generally quicker and print to a higher quality . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.6 - Additional Hardware: 1.6a - Internal Hardware 1. What is the purpose of the motherboard ? [2 ] ​ 2a. What is the purpose of the GPU ? [ 2 ] 2b. Describe two differences between integrated and dedicated expansion cards . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Explain how a sound card works. [ 4 ] ​ 1.6b - Embedded Systems 1. What is an embedded system ? [3 ] ​ 2a. Give two examples of an embedded system. [ 2 ] 2b. Research and describe another example of an embedded system. [ 2 ] ​ 1.6c - Input & Out[ut Devices 1. Choose four input devices and describe at least two benefits and two drawbacks of using each one. [ 8 ] ​ 2. Describe three output devices . [ 3 ] ​ 3. Justify which input and output devices would be most suitable in the following scenarios: a. A teacher needs to take the class register . [ 4 ] b. A family want to communicate with their cousins in Australia. [ 4 ] c. The school movie club wants to play Star Wars in the assembly hall. [ 4 ] d. An e-sports player is taking part in an online multiplayer tournament . [ 4 ] e. A laboratory needs security so that only registered scientists can enter. [ 4 ] 1.5 - Performance 2.1 - Logical Operators Theory Topics

  • 2.3 - Quality of Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    2.3 - Quality of Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Information Characteristics Valid Information This is correct, up-to-date and complete information that fits its purpose . For example, detailed end-of-year financial data in the form of graphs. Biased Information This is technically correct, but slanted , information that presents a one-sided view . For example, end-of year financial data that focuses on profits and ignores significant losses. Relevant Information Information should be appropriate for the required purpose . Irrelevant information may get in the way of correct decision making. Accurate Information Information should be carefully selected and entirely correct , inaccurate information can lead to unwanted consequences such as higher costs and missed deadlines. Reliable Information Information from a source that can be verified and confirmed to be correct . For example, BBC News is a more reliable information source than social media posts. Information Quality The quality of information that an organisation uses will have a significant impact on further processes and decisions. ​ Good quality information that is accurate , valid or reliable can lead to better strategic decisions , meeting deadlines and innovation . ​ Poor quality information that is biased , inaccurate or out of date may lead to negative consequences such as loss of customer trust , fines and legal challenges . Positive Effects of Good Quality Information Reliable information received by the management team . Good quality research information. Good quality sales information. Accurate cost projection information. Informed decisions with a higher chance of success . Can lead to innovation and better understanding . Strategic decisions and planning ahead . Projects will stay within their budget . Accurate time expectations . Projects will be completed on time . Negative Effects of Poor Quality Information Biased survey with inaccurate results . Inaccurate stock information. Out of date information received by management . Inaccurate data has led to poor reviews online . Inaccurate time expectations . Misinformed decisions , not responding to customers needs . ??? Inaccurate delivery times , customers unhappy . Too much / little stock. Miss out on opportunities , possible fall in profits . Loss of customer trust , loss of customers and reputation . Financial issues . Projects take longer , cost more , stakeholders unhappy . Possible project failure . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.3 - Quality of Information: ​ 1. Describe 5 characteristics of information . [10 ] ​ 2. Explain 5 positive impacts of good quality information . [10 ] ​ 3. Explain 5 negative impacts of poor quality information . [10 ] 2.2 - Information Classification 2.4 - Information Management Topic List

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