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• OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 5.3 - Threats | CSNewbs

• 3.7 - The Internet - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

• 2.1 - Logical Operators - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

2.1: Logical Operators & Truth Tables Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a logical operator? Inside of each computer system are millions of transistors . These are tiny switches that can either be turned on (represented in binary by the number 1 ) or turned off (represented by 0 ). ​ Logical operators are symbols used to represent circuits of transistors within a computer. The four most common operators are: ​ NOT AND OR XOR What is a truth table? A truth table is a visual way of displaying all possible outcomes of a logical operator. The input and output values in a truth table must be a Boolean value - usually 0 or 1 but occasionally True or False. NOT A NOT logical operator will produce an output which is the opposite of the input . ​ NOT is represented by a horizontal line . Boolean Algebra Notation written as NOT A A Truth Table AND An AND logical operator will output 1 only if both inputs are also 1 . ​ AND is represented by a full stop. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A AND B A.B Truth Table OR An OR logical operator will output 1 if either input is 1 . ​ OR is represented by a plus. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A OR B A+B Truth Table XOR An XOR (exclusive OR) logical operator will output 1 if the inputs are different and output 0 if the inputs are the same . ​ XOR is represented by a circled plus. Boolean Algebra Notation written as A XOR B A B Truth Table Multiple Operations Exam questions will ask you complete truth tables that use more than one logical operator . Work out each column in turn from left to right and look carefully at which column you need to use. Simplification You may be asked to use a truth table to simplify an expression . ​ This is actually really easy. Once you've completed the truth table see if any columns match the final expression . A+B and A+(A+B) both result in the same values , therefore: A+(A+B) can be simplified as just A+B. Q uesto's Q uestions 2.1 - Logical Operators: ​ 1. Copy and complete the following truth tables: ​ ​ ​ 1b. Simplify the expression in the second truth table. ​ 2a. A cinema uses a computer system to monitor how many seats have been allocated for upcoming movies. If both the premium seats and the standard seats are sold out then the system will display a message. State the type of logical operator in this example. 2b. For the more popular movies, the cinema's computer system will also display a message if either the premium seats or the standard seats have exclusively been sold out. However, it will not output a message when both have been sold out. State the type of logical operator in this example. 1.6 - Additional Hardware 2.2 - Boolean Algebra Theory Topics

• 4.2 - Data Structures | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

Exam Board: OCR 4.2 - Data Structures Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.2 - Data Structures: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 4.1e - Shifts & Masks Theory Topics 4.3a - Logical Operators & Truth Tables

• 1.1a - The CPU - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

Exam Board: OCR 1.1a: The CPU Specification: J277 The Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) is the most important component in any computer system. ​ Like many components of a computer, it is attached to the motherboard . ​ The purpose of the CPU is to process data and instructions by constantly repeating the fetch - execute cycle . CPU Components The Control Unit (CU ) sends control signals to direct the operation of the CPU . Control signals and timing signals are sent to the ALU and other components such as RAM . It also decodes instructions as part of the F-E cycle . ALU stands for ‘ Arithmetic and Logic Unit ’. It performs simple calculations and logical operations . A register is a temporary storage space for one instruction or address . ​ Different registers are used during the FE cycle . Cache memory is used to temporarily store data that is frequently accessed . ​ Cache memory is split into different levels . Cache is slower to access than the registers but much faster than RAM . Computer Architecture The way a computer is designed and structured is known as its architecture . ​ The most common type of computer architecture is Von Neumann . Von Neumann Architecture This architecture is named after John von Neumann who developed the concept of a stored program computer in the 1940s. Before being able to store programs in memory , instructions had to be manually input by a human. ​ A computer with Von Neumann architecture stores both program instructions and data in the same memory (RAM ). Other architectures like Harvard have two separate memories - one for program instructions and another for data. ​ Data is transferred between components on pathways called buses . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1a - The CPU: ​ 1a. What does 'CPU ' stand for ? [1 ] 1b. What is the purpose of the CPU ? [ 2 ] ​ 2. Draw a diagram of the CPU , and l abel the four main components . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Describe the purpose of: a. The Control Unit [ 2 ] b. The ALU [ 2 ] c. The registers [ 2 ] d. Cache memory [ 2 ] ​ 4. Describe the key feature of Von Neumann architecture . [ 2 ] 1.1b - Registers & FE Cycle Theory Topics

• 8.4 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

8.4: Sorting & Searching Algorithms Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Merge Sort Merge sort is a sorting algorithm based on the idea of ‘divide and conquer ’. A merge sort divides a list into half , again and again until each data item is separate . Then the items are combined in the same way as they were divided , but now in the correct order . When the individual lists are all merged together as one list again, then the data is in order and the algorithm will end . Bubble Sort This algorithm is based on the comparison of adjacent data elements . ​ Data elements are swapped if they are not in the correct order . A bubble sort is not suitable for large sets of data. Linear Search A linear search is the most simple search algorithm. ​ Each data item is searched in order from the first value to the last as if they were all laid out in a line . The list does not have to be in any order before it is searched . This search is also known as a sequential search because the list is searched in a sequence from start to end. For large lists , this search is not very efficient . Binary Search A binary search is a much more efficient searching algorithm as it generally searches through fewer data and is often much quicker - especially for large data sets. In a binary search, the middle point of the data is selected with each iteration and many data items can be ignored. However, the list of data must already be sorted in order before a binary search can take place. Q uesto's Q uestions 8.3 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms: ​ Linear Search Explain step-by-step how the number 8 would be found in the following list using a linear search : 12, 5, 3, 2, 8, 19, 14, 6 [4 ] ​ Binary Search Explain step-by-step how the number 2 would be found in the following list using a binary search : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 [6 ] ​ Merge Sort Explain step-by-step how a merge sort would sort the following list of numbers: 4, 8, 5, 1, 3, 6, 7, 2 [6 ] ​ Bubble Sort Explain step-by-step how a bubble sort would sort the following list of numbers: 3, 2, 6, 4, 1, 4 [6 ] Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube 8.3 - Writing Algorithms Theory Topics 8.5 - Validation & Verification

• Greenfoot Guide #6 | Counter | CSNewbs

6. The Counter Greenfoot Tutorial 1. Import the Counter The counter class can be imported into your Greenfoot world. ​ Select Edit in the main Greenfoot window then ' Import Class... ' and choose Counter . Watch on YouTube: The Counter class will appear in the Actor classes list . Right-click on the Counter, choose the ' new Counter() ' option and drag it into the world. ​ Now right-click on the background and select 'Save the World' once you have dragged the counter into the world. 2. Increase the Counter by 1 Two lines of code are required to increase the counter . ​ Add this code when your main character is removing the collectible object . This code allows your main character to access the 'add' method from the Counter class . ​ The method 'add ' just increases the value of the counter by the number in the brackets . ​ To decrease the counter , type a negative value in the brackets, such as -1 . < Part 5 - Play Sounds 3. Compile and Run Click the Compile button at the top of the code editor . ​ Then you can go back to the main Greenfoot window and click Run to test if your counter increases . Click on me if you've got an error that you're stuck with. Part 7 - Extension Ideas >

• OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 3.5 - Business Systems | CSNewbs

• 3.1 - Data vs Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

3.1 - Data vs. Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The terms 'data ' and 'information ' are often used interchangeably but they do not mean the same thing . The term 'data ' refers to unprocessed facts or statistics that have no context . ​ For example, 53% is data - it is a statistic that has no context. The term 'information ' refers to data that has been processed , organised and structured into context . ​ For example, 53% of pumpkin stock was sold in 2019 is information - it is data that has been given context (meaning). Data Processing Information Q uesto's Q uestions 3.1 - Data vs. Information: ​ 1. Describe , using examples , the difference between data and information . [4 ] 2.4 - Information Management 3.2 & 3.3 - Information Categories Topic List

• 5.1 - Operating Systems - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

• 1.6 - Additional Hardware - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

1.6: Additional Hardware Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + 1.6a - Internal Hardware Motherboard The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer , unique for each device. It holds and connects the different components together , allowing data to be transferred between them. Components such as the CPU and ROM are directly attached to the motherboard. The motherboard has expansion slots for additional cards (i.e. sound cards) and ports (i.e. USB). Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Sound Card A GPU is a microprocessor that performs complex calculations to generate graphical images to be displayed on a monitor . ​ There are two types of GPU, integrated GPUs within the motherboard circuitry or dedicated GPUs on an additional card (known as a 'graphics card'). ​ An integrated GPU is cheaper and generates less power because it uses the RAM of the computer . Integrated GPUs are used in tablets and laptops as they generate less heat and are optimal for general computing uses (e.g. web browsing or watching movies). ​ A dedicated GPU is more expensive and generates more heat, often requiring a fan because it contains its own memory . Dedicated cards are used by animation professionals and professional gamers who require the best graphics. Sound cards convert analogue sound waves into digital data (binary) when inputting audio through a microphone.​ 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 Sound cards also convert digital data (binary) into analogue sound waves to output audio through speakers or headphones. 1.6b - Embedded Systems Example: A washing machine has a control chip that manages the different program cycles. An embedded system is a computer system built into a larger machine to provide a means of control . ​ Embedded systems perform a specific pre-programmed task which is stored in ROM . ​ An embedded system uses a combination of hardware and software . Example: A traffic light has a control chip that determines when to change to a green or red light. 1.6c - Input & Output Devices Input devices are used by humans to interact with a computer system , through methods such as text , voice or touch . ​ Output devices show the result of computer processing , such as sound , printed text or a visual display on a monitor. ​ Storage devices , such as a USB stick or an external hard drive, are neither input nor output devices - see 1.4 . Input Devices These are just some of the more common input devices . A mouse and a keyboard have been described in further detail. Are there any devices below you haven't heard of before? Mouse Benefits: Easy to navigate a graphical user interface. A wireless mouse takes up less space . Faster to select options (e.g. in a video game). Drawbacks: Difficult to use for people with restricted hand movement . Difficult to use on some surfaces . Other input devices: ​ Scanner Controller Microphone Webcam Chip Reader OCR Scanner OMR Scanner Barcode Scanner Graphics Tablet Sensors (e.g. light or temperature) Touch Screen Remote Control Biometric Scanner (e.g. fingerprint or iris) Concept Keyboard Sip / Puff Switch Keyboard Benefits: Quick to input text . Easy to use with a familiar layout on most keyboards. Keys can be customised and shortcuts can be used . Drawbacks: Takes up a large amount of space on a desk. Difficult for people to use with restricted hand movement or poor eyesight . Output Devices Monitor These are just some of the more common output devices . ​ A monitor and a printer have been described in further detail. Are there any devices below you haven't heard of before? Other output devices: ​ ​ Plotter Speakers Projector Alarm Light Headphones Touch Screen Braille Terminal What is it? A monitor is required to see the result of human input and computer processing . Monitors can be bought in different sizes and resolutions for a range of purposes such as video editing or playing games . Monitors settings can be changed to alter the brightness or contrast . Printer What is it? A printer uses ink or toner to print a document (such as text or images) onto paper . Inkjet printers use ink cartridges , are generally slower and print in a lower quality . Laser printers use toner cartridges and are generally quicker and print to a higher quality . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.6 - Additional Hardware: 1.6a - Internal Hardware 1. What is the purpose of the motherboard ? [2 ] ​ 2a. What is the purpose of the GPU ? [ 2 ] 2b. Describe two differences between integrated and dedicated expansion cards . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Explain how a sound card works. [ 4 ] ​ 1.6b - Embedded Systems 1. What is an embedded system ? [3 ] ​ 2a. Give two examples of an embedded system. [ 2 ] 2b. Research and describe another example of an embedded system. [ 2 ] ​ 1.6c - Input & Out[ut Devices 1. Choose four input devices and describe at least two benefits and two drawbacks of using each one. [ 8 ] ​ 2. Describe three output devices . [ 3 ] ​ 3. Justify which input and output devices would be most suitable in the following scenarios: a. A teacher needs to take the class register . [ 4 ] b. A family want to communicate with their cousins in Australia. [ 4 ] c. The school movie club wants to play Star Wars in the assembly hall. [ 4 ] d. An e-sports player is taking part in an online multiplayer tournament . [ 4 ] e. A laboratory needs security so that only registered scientists can enter. [ 4 ] 1.5 - Performance 2.1 - Logical Operators Theory Topics

• 2.3 - Quality of Information | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

2.3 - Quality of Information Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Information Characteristics Valid Information This is correct, up-to-date and complete information that fits its purpose . For example, detailed end-of-year financial data in the form of graphs. Biased Information This is technically correct, but slanted , information that presents a one-sided view . For example, end-of year financial data that focuses on profits and ignores significant losses. Relevant Information Information should be appropriate for the required purpose . Irrelevant information may get in the way of correct decision making. Accurate Information Information should be carefully selected and entirely correct , inaccurate information can lead to unwanted consequences such as higher costs and missed deadlines. Reliable Information Information from a source that can be verified and confirmed to be correct . For example, BBC News is a more reliable information source than social media posts. Information Quality The quality of information that an organisation uses will have a significant impact on further processes and decisions. ​ Good quality information that is accurate , valid or reliable can lead to better strategic decisions , meeting deadlines and innovation . ​ Poor quality information that is biased , inaccurate or out of date may lead to negative consequences such as loss of customer trust , fines and legal challenges . Positive Effects of Good Quality Information Reliable information received by the management team . Good quality research information. Good quality sales information. Accurate cost projection information. Informed decisions with a higher chance of success . Can lead to innovation and better understanding . Strategic decisions and planning ahead . Projects will stay within their budget . Accurate time expectations . Projects will be completed on time . Negative Effects of Poor Quality Information Biased survey with inaccurate results . Inaccurate stock information. Out of date information received by management . Inaccurate data has led to poor reviews online . Inaccurate time expectations . Misinformed decisions , not responding to customers needs . ??? Inaccurate delivery times , customers unhappy . Too much / little stock. Miss out on opportunities , possible fall in profits . Loss of customer trust , loss of customers and reputation . Financial issues . Projects take longer , cost more , stakeholders unhappy . Possible project failure . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.3 - Quality of Information: ​ 1. Describe 5 characteristics of information . [10 ] ​ 2. Explain 5 positive impacts of good quality information . [10 ] ​ 3. Explain 5 negative impacts of poor quality information . [10 ] 2.2 - Information Classification 2.4 - Information Management Topic List

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