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  • Key Stage 3 Python | Calculations | CSNewbs

    Python - #4 - Calculations 1. Creating Calculations To add in Python use + ​ To subtract in Python use - ​ To multiply in Python use * ​ To divide in Python use / Task 1 - Create a new Python program and save the file as ​ Print 4 different calculations - use each operator once.(add/subtract/multiply/divide) Python is very clever, so don't be afraid to make your own calculations using larger numbers and more than one operator . 2. Using Inputs and Calculations You can ask the user to enter numbers by writing input lines. ​ Python can then perform calculations using the numbers that the user has entered. ​ Don't forget to add int ( and double close brackets when using numbers ! Task 2 - Copy the new code from the picture. Change the text and num1 so you are dividing by 5 not 3. Don't delete your earlier code , just add this underneath. ​ I have cropped the images to make the new code clearer. 3. Using Calculations in a Sentence When we have printed the calculations so far, they have not been very informative! ​ You can print calculations together with sentences so that they mean more. ​ Use a comma ( , ) between calculations and sentences . Task 3 - Use the pictures to help you add commas and sentences to your program to be more informative. Challenge Programs Use everything that you have learned on this page to help you create these programs... ​ Challenge Task 1 - Multiplication Create a new Python program. Save it as ' 4 ' Add a comment at the top with your name and the date. Write an input line ( don't forget int ! ) that asks the user to enter number 1. Write an input line ( don't forget int ! ) that asks the user to enter number 2. Multiply number 1 and number 2 together and print the answer. ​ BONUS : Try to show number 1 and number 2 in the print statement (see practice task 3 to help you). ​ Remember: Break up variables in a print line by using commas. ​ When you run it, it could look something like this: Challenge Task 2 - Retirement Create a new Python program. Save is as ' ' Add a comment at the top with your name and the date. Write an input line ( don't forget int ! ) that asks the user to enter their age. Print the year that they will turn 65. (This is slightly tricky. Hint : You need to know their age, and you need to know the current year. You need to subtract something, and you need to add something. Try using scrap paper to help you figure it out.) ​ BONUS : Use only one print line. BONUS : Try to use only two lines in total . ​ Remember: Break up variables in a print line by using commas. ​ When you run it, it could look something like this: <<< #3 Inputs #5 Selection >>>

  • Old Eduqas Topics (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Topics from the 2016 Eduqas Specification This page contains information from the 2016 Eduqas specification that was removed for the 2020 specification. ​Quick Links: ​ Buses & Instruction Sets (RISC & CISC) Protocols (IMAP & POP3) Network Devices (Gateway) Human-Computer Interaction (Command-Line Interface, Touch-Sensitive Interface, Menu-Driven Interface, Voice-Driven Interface) Cyber Attacks (Dictionary Attack, Buffer Overflow, Human Weakness) Software Protection (Secure by Design, Too Many Permissions, Scripting Restrictions, Validation with Parameters) Data Policies (Acceptable Use Policy, Disaster Recovery, Cookies) Environmental Issues (Tips to Reduce Waste, Positive Impacts of Technology) Object Oriented Programming (Greenfoot and Java) Programming Topics (Assembly Language, HTML, Greenfoot) Buses Buses & Instruction Sets Buses Data is transferred within a computer system along pathways called buses . ​ There are three types of bus: Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus Sends a memory address of where data is stored.​​ The address is sent from the CPU to RAM in the FDE cycle. Transfers data between components. Data is sent both ways . Sends control signals from the control unit to other components of the system. Status signals are sent back to the CPU. An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has fewer instructions than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but quick for basic tasks . CISC has more complex instructions available and can therefore perform complicated tasks . Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. Protocols Protocols POP3 ( Post Office Protocol 3 ) and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol ) are both protocols for receiving and storing emails from a mail server. Gateway Network Devices Gateway A gateway joins together two networks that use different base protocols . For example, a gateway could link together a LAN to a WAN . HCI Human - Computer Interaction Command-Line Interface Touch-Sensitive Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a command-line interface (CLI ). This type of interface is entirely text-based and requires users to interact with the system by typing commands . This is a complicated process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only experts who have been trained t o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. Another type of user interface is a touch-sensitive interface , used with smartphones and tablets . ​ A human interacts with the device by pressing on a touchscreen , making it very intuitive and suitable for most users without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may not work with dirty or wet fingers and it will take longer to write text compared to using a keyboard. Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface displays data in a series of linked menus . Examples include cash machines (ATMs) and old iPods . ​ This type of interface is generally user friendly and easy to use as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be annoying to find specific data through a large number of menus without a search feature. Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be controlled by speaking commands aloud to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's Alexa devices, Apple's Siri technology and Google Home . ​ This interface is intuitive , can be used hands-free and helps to speed up processes . However commands may be misheard or limited in what can be performed. Cyber Attacks Cyber Attacks Dictionary Password Attack This uses a file containing every word in the dictionary and cycles through them all. This method is relatively easy to program but will only break the simplest passwords . Buffer Overflow Attack A buffer is a temporary storage location . ​ A buffer overflow attack causes a program to try to store more data in a buffer than it can hold which can lead to adjacent memory locations being overwritten . An attacker can use the buffer overflow to insert malicious code to change data or steal confidential data . Human Weakness The biggest weakness in online security is often not the systems in place but carelessness or mistakes made by humans . Social engineering means to trick others into revealing their personal data by posing as a trusted source . For example, impersonating an IT technician via email and asking to send a username and password. Humans can accidentally compromise data by downloading malicious files or being unsafe online, like using the same password for multiple different accounts. Attackers can access unauthorised information in person by shoulder surfing and watching them as they enter sensitive data such as a PIN or password. Software Protection Software Protection The following methods of protection are considered in the design, testing and creation stages of developing software . Secure by Design This method puts security as the most important concept when creating and designing software . ​ By focusing on security when designing software there should be less need for later updates and patches and attacks are less likely to succeed . Too Many Permissions Apps require permission to use device features (such as the camera or microphone of a smartphone) when they are downloaded. Programmers should only request permission for features that the software requires . ​ Some malicious apps steal data or spy on users - and the worst part is that you've given permission for it to do it! Users can avoid suspicious apps by reading reviews, checking there are no unnecessary permission requests , only downloading the software you need / will use and uninstall apps if permissions change . Scripting Restrictions A script is a set of instructions executed on a website. For example, Facebook uses a JavaScript script to post a status and another to read your private messages. ​ The Same Origin Policy (SOP) is a security precaution that prevents websites from using scripts on other sites that you have open . For example, if you are using JavaScript to post a status on Facebook then visit an infected site, that site can't also use JavaScript to access your Facebook data, because even though they both use JavaScript, they are from a different origin . Without SOP an infected website could access personal data or infect a computer with malware by maliciously using the same scripts as other websites you have used . Programmers should set scripting restrictions when creating websites. Validation with Parameters A parameter is a measure that is used when validating data , it is usually a range or limit. For example, the parameters of a length check may be whether the data is between 1 and 10 characters . ​ Programmers must ensure validation is used on websites with suitable parameters to prevent attacks such as an SQL injection. Data Policies Data Policies Data policies are written documents that clearly define how data should be managed in an organisation. It is important that all employees stick to these policies and requirements so that data is kept safe and can be replaced if lost or corrupted. The following methods are examples of common data policies. Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Workplaces and schools often require people to sign an acceptable use policy (AUP) before being allowed to use the network. It is a list of rules and expected behaviour that users must follow when using the computer systems. Typical rules include: Which websites are off-limits (such as social media or gambling sites), Download permissions (such as who can download and install software) Email communication (such as appropriate language). Punishments if rules of the AUP are broken. ​ The AUP is sometimes known as a Code of Conduct . This is an example of a formal code of practice , with written rules and clear expectations . An informal code of practice would not be officially written down , such as personal habits and preferences (e.g. email layout or desk organisation). Disaster Recovery With important data often stored on a computer network, it is absolutely vital that a detailed and effective disaster recovery policy is in place in the event of data being lost due to an unexpected disaster. ​ Disasters include natural disasters (e.g. fire, flood, lightning), hardware failure (e.g. power supply unit failing), software failure (e.g. virus damage) and malicious damage (e.g. hacking). ​ ​ There are three clear parts to a disaster recovery policy:​​ ​ Before the disaster: All of the possible risks should be analysed to spot if there are any weaknesses in preparation. Preventative measures should be taken after the analysis, such as making rooms flood-proof or storing important data at a different location . Staff training should take place to inform employees what should happen in the event of a disaster. During the disaster: The staff response is very important – employees should follow their training and ensure that data is protected and appropriate measures are put in place. Contingency plans should be implemented while the disaster is taking place, such as uploading recent data to cloud storage or securing backups in a safe room and using alternative equipment until the disaster is over. After the disaster: Recovery measures should be followed, such as using backups to repopulate computer systems. Replacement hardware needs to be purchased for equipment that is corrupted or destroyed. Software needs to be reinstalled on the new hardware. Disaster recovery policies should also be updated and improved . Cookies A cookie is a small piece of data that is stored by websites when you visit them. They allow the website to identify the user and are often used to speed up processes , such as: Automatic login (by saving account details) Save items into a basket (such as pizza delivery sites) Display adverts related to your previous search terms . Although they can be used to save time, some argue that cookies can be intrusive and store too much information. Environmental Issues Environmental Issues Tips to Reduce Waste Turn off computers , monitors and other connected devices when not in use . Adjust power options to help minimise power consumption.​ ​Devices with the Energy Star sticker use between 30% and 70% less electricity than usual. Repair older devices rather than throwing them away. Ink jet printers use up to 95% less energy than laser jets.​​ Think twice about printing paper, don't waste ink and remember to recycle paper . Positive Environmental Impacts Communication advancements (such as video messengers) reduces pollution as people do not have to travel to speak to each other. This is especially beneficial in business - workers can talk from the office and do not need to catch a plane to speak. Smart devices can monitor usage and reduce energy waste - such as smart air conditioners and home security systems. Collaboration software (such as cloud-based technology and Google Docs) allows experts to work together and share data. The internet and research databases allows scientists to study the environment more efficiently. Documents can be viewed on a screen rather than printed out - books and newspaper articles can be read on kindles / tablets saving paper and ink . New materials and more environmentally-friendly processes have been developed thanks to increased technology and research. Object Oriented Programming Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Java is an example of object-oriented programming (OOP) where a programmer is able to code objects that can be visually placed onto a background. Greenfoot is an IDE for Java . Superclass A class from which other 'subclasses' will inherit characteristics ; e.g. hippos, crocodiles and polar bears will inherit properties from the Animals superclass. Object A single object from a class ; e.g. one crocodile object from the Crocodile class. Class A set of objects which share the same properties ; e.g. all PolarBears will behave in a similar way. Comment Two / symbols will allow you to write a comment to explain the code . Method A series of instructions that an object will follow . The act() method will loop in Greenfoot when the play button is pressed. Programming Programming Topics Variable Scope & Lifetime The scope of a variable refers to the parts of the program where the variable can be viewed and used , e.g. a variable with global scope can be accessed anywhere in the program . The lifetime of a variable is the amount of time the variable is stored in memory and therefore can be used , e.g. local variables can only be accessed throughout the subroutine they are created in. Programming Languages: Assembly Language HTML Greenfoot Theory Topics

  • Python | Section 8 Practice Tasks | CSNewbs

    top Python - Section 8 Practice Tasks Task One Write a program with a blank list. ​ Use the .append() command to add your three favourite ice-cream flavours to this list and then print the list. Example solution: Task Two Write a program with a list of any 5 numbers. ​ Print the list. ​ Delete the first and third numbers. Print the list. Example solution: Task Three Write a program with a list of three different animals. ​ Write an input line that lets the user type an animal. ​ Add what the user has written to the list and print the list. Example solution: Task Four Sort your list from task two into order. Then print the list. Example solution: Task Five Copy the text on the right and put it into a list named countries. ​ Count the number of countries in the list. ​ Print the longest country. ​ Use a for loop to work out the length of each country. "Egypt", "Angola", " Eritrea " , "Mozambique" , "Ghana" , "Chad" , "Somalia" , "Namibia" , "Sudan" , "Libya" , "Algeria", "Morocco" , "Cameroon" Example solution: Task Six Create a dictionary (see 8c ) that asks users questions about yourself, such as first name, favourite colour or birthday. ​ Let the user answer each question and display the answer if they get it correct. Use the 'Using a Dictionary to Make a Game ' section of 8c to help you. Example solution: ⬅ 8c - Dictionar ies 9a - String Handling ➡

  • 1.1b - Registers & FE Cycle - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.1b: Registers & The F-E Cycle Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 The Fetch - Execute (F - E) cycle is performed by the CPU millions of times every second. ​ This cycle is how the CPU processes data and instructions for each program or service that requires its attention. Important Registers A register is a small storage space for temporary data in the CPU . Each register has a specific role . There are three essential registers used in the F-E cycle : ​ Program Counter (PC) A register that tracks the RAM address of the next instruction to be fetched . Memory Address Register (MAR) ​ A register that tracks the RAM address of the instruction that is to be fetched . Memory Data Register (MDR) ​ The MDR stores the instruction that has been transferred from RAM to the CPU . Current Instruction Register (CIR) A register that stores the instruction that has been fetched from RAM , and is about to be decoded or executed . Accumulator (ACC) ​ The ACC stores the result of mathematical or logical calculations . Fetch - Execute Cycle The essential idea of the F-E cycle is that instructions are fetched from RAM , to be decoded (understood) and executed (processed) by the CPU . 1. The Program Counter (PC ) register displays the address in RAM of the next instruction to be processed . This value is copied into the Memory Address Register (MAR ). 0054 2. The PC register is increased by 1 . ​ This prepares the CPU for the next instruction to be fetched. 0055 3. The CPU checks the address in RAM which matches the address held in the MAR . 0054 4. The instruction in RAM is transferred to the Memory Data Register (MDR ). 5. The instruction in the MDR is copied into the Current Instruction Register (CIR ). MDR MDR CIR 6. The instruction in the CIR is decoded (understood) and executed (processed). Any result of an execution is stored in the Accumulator (ACC ) register. CIR ACC 7. The cycle repeats by returning to the first step and checking the program counter for the address of the next instruction . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1b - Registers & The F-E Cycle: ​ 1 . What is the purpose of the registers ? [1 ] ​ 2 . Describe the purpose of each register : a. The Program Counter (PC) [ 2 ] b. The Memory Address Register (MAR) [ 2 ] c. The Memory Data Register (MDR) [ 2 ] d. The Current Instruction Register (CIR) [ 2 ] e. The Accumulator (ACC) [ 2 ] ​ 3. Draw a diagram with icons and words to show the steps of the Fetch - Execute cycle . [7 ] 1.1a - The CPU Theory Topics 1.2 - CPU Performance

  • 2.1 - Operating Systems | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 2.1: Operating Systems Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.1 - Operating Systems: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 1.3b - Memory & Storage Theory Topics 2.2a - Applications & Utilities

  • Python | 2b - Inputting Numbers | CSNewbs

    top Python 2B - Inputting Numbers Inputting Whole Numbers in Python To enter whole numbers then you must use the int command. int stands for integer (a whole number ) and is typed before input – don’t forget the double brackets at the end . age = int ( input ( "How old are you? " )) print ( "Have you really lived for " , age , "years?" ) = How old are you? 99 Have you really lived for 99 years? Inputting Numbers Task 1 ( Zoo) Type an input line (with int ) to ask the user how many times they’ve been to the zoo . Print a reply that uses the zoo variable (their answer). Example solution: How many times have you been to the zoo? 3 You've been to the zoo 3 times? I love animals! Inputting Decimal Numbers in Python Using float instead of int allows a decimal number to be entered instead. Again, don’t forget the double brackets at the end . miles = float ( input ( "How far have you walked today? " )) print ( "You really walked for " , miles , "miles? Wow!" ) = How far have you walked today? 5.6 You really walked for 5.6 miles? Wow! Inputting Numbers Task 2 ( Height ) Type an input line (with float ) to ask the user their height in metres. ​ Print a reply that uses the height variable (their answer). Example solution: What is your height in metres? 1.82 You are 1.82 metres tall? Wow! ⬅ 2a - Inputting Text Sect ion 2 Practice Tasks ➡

  • 2.3 - Units - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    2.3: Data Units Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 Why data must be stored in binary format How data needs to be converted into a binary format to be processed by a computer text file size = bits per character x number of characters All computer systems communicate , process and store data using binary . Binary is a number system consisting entirely of 0s and 1s . ​ Why do computers use binary? Computer systems consist of billions of tiny transistors which are switches that only have two values - on (1 ) or off (0 ). Therefore all data must be represented and processed in this way. ​ Everything that a computer needs to process must be converted into a binary format including text , images , videos and audio . 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0101 0100 1010 1010 1010 1010 1111 1110 0010 1001 0100 1001 0010 0111 0111 0101 0011 1010 1000 0101 0110 0111 0000 1010 1010 0011 1101 1001 0010 1101 0010 0100 1001 0011 1010 1001 0101 0101 0010 0101 0111 0101 0101 1000 1011 0111 Units of Data Storage 0 / 1 All data in a computer system is made up of bits . ​ A single bit is a 0 or a 1 . 4 bits (such as 0101 or 1101) is called a nibble . 1,000 bytes is called a kilobyte . ​ A kilobyte can store a short email . A 8 bits is called a byte . A byte can store a single character . 1,000 kilobytes is called a megabyte . ​ A megabyte can store about a minute of music . 1,000 megabytes is called a gigabyte . ​ A gigabyte can store about 500 photos . 1,000 terabytes is called a petabyte . ​ A petabyte can store about 1.5 million CDs . 1,000 gigabytes is called a terabyte . ​ A terabyte can store about 500 hours of films . This video shows some real-world examples to help you understand the scale of the different data storage units . ​ Important note - this video was originally made for a different exam board and uses a scale of 1,024 between data units. ​ Technically 1,000 bytes is a kilobyte . 1,024 bytes is a kibibyte . ​ In the OCR GCSE exam you can use either 1,000 or 1,024 but as it is a non-calculator paper it makes sense to use 1,000 for simpler calculations . Calculating Data Capacity Requirements It is important to be able to calculate the required storage capacity for a given set of data . ​ Example: ​ A local DJ has a USB memory stick with a capacity of 32GB . There is currently only 9GB of space remaining . ​ Each song is 6MB . How many songs can be stored on the remaining space of the USB stick? ​ Solution: ​ Because each song is recorded in megabytes but the USB stick capacity is measured in gigabytes , the values must be converted into the same storage unit . ​ 9GB x 1000 = 9000MB ​ 9000MB ÷ 6MB = 1,500 songs Watch on YouTube Q uesto's Q uestions 2.3 - Data Units: ​ 1. Explain why computer systems use binary to represent data. [ 2 ] ​ 2. Put the following data storage units in order from smallest to largest : a . kilobyte - gigabyte - byte - megabyte - nibble - bit [3 ] b. gigabyte - petabyte - kilobyte - byte - terabyte - megabyte [ 3 ] ​ 3. A hard drive contains 25GB of remaining available storage space. Tim is an animator backing up video files. Each file is 200MB . How many files can he fit on the hard drive? [ 2 ] ​ 4. Samantha is a musician. She has compressed each song to 900KB . Her USB memory stick contains 1.2GB of free storage. How many songs can she fit on the USB stick? [ 2 ] ​ 5. A CD has a capacity of 650MB . How many 0.2GB audio files can be stored on the CD? [ 2 ] 2.2 - Secondary Storage Theory Topics 2.4a - Number Storage

  • 10.1 - Translators - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    10.1: Translators Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a translator? A translator changes (translates) a program written in one language into another language (usually machine code ). There are three types of translator : Assembler An assembler converts low level assembly language into machine code . INP STA 33 INP STA 34 LDA 33 ADD OUT HLT Interpreter An interpreter converts high-level language one line at a time into machine code and executes it. PYT HON Compiler A compiler converts high-level language into machine code for execution at a later time. The entire program is converted at once . PYT HON 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 Differences between an interpreter and a Compiler: Interpreter Compiler Execution Method: An interpreter translates source code (high level code) into machine code one line at a time . ​ Execution Speed: An interpreter is slower than a compiler because the code must be reinterpreted each time the program is run. ​ Complexity: Interpreters are smaller, simpler programs . ​ Error Reporting: In error reporting, the interpreter would encounter the errors and report it to the user immediately and stops the program from running.​ ​ Repetition: Interpreted programs can be edited and run without translating the whole program . Interpreters must reinterpret the program every time it is run. Execution Method: A compiler translates all the source code (high level code) into machine code in one go . A compiler produces an executable file that will run on other machines without the compiler needing to be installed. ​ Execution Speed: Compilers can produce much more efficient code than interpreters making the compiled programs run faster . ​ Complexity: Compilers tend to be large complex programs . ​ ​ Error Reporting: The compiler would analyse the entire program , taking note of where errors have occurred and record them in an error file . ​ Repetition: Compilation requires analysis and the generation of the code only once , whereas interpreters must re-interpret each time. However, compiled programs have to be re-compiled after any changes have been made. x1 ∞ x1 Q uesto's Q uestions 10.1 - Translators: ​ 1. Briefly describe each type of translator : a. Assembler [ 1 ] b. Interpreter [ 2 ] c. Compiler [ 2 ] ​ 2. Compare interpreters and compilers for each of the following features : a. Execution Method b. Execution Speed c. Complexity d. Error Reporting e. Repetition [ 10 total ] 9.1 - IDE Tools Theory Topics 10.2 - Stages of Compilation

  • 2.2a - Applications & Utilities | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 2.2a: Applications & Utilities Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.2a - Applications & Utilities: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 2.1 - Operating Systems Theory Topics 2.2b - Translators & Compilation

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 4.1 - Communication Skills | CSNewbs

    4.1 - Communication Skills Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Communication skills are vital for anybody working within the IT industry. Employees will need to communicate with other members of their team and with those who encounter issues with their computer systems. Interpersonal Skills Communication is not just through speaking to another person, behaviour is also important. Employees should sit up straight in their chairs to show interest and eye contact should be maintained when speaking to another person or listening in a meeting. It is important to speak clearly so that others can understand what you are trying to say. Verbal Communication Employees should know when to use informal and formal language appropriately. For example, formal language should be used in meetings as it is a work environment . ​ Employees should think carefully about when to use technical terms . Technical terminology should be used when discussing issues with technicians but simplified explanations should be given to customers who may be inexperienced with their systems. Questioning Techniques Questioning is used to uncover problems in order to solve them . Closed questions will be direct and prompt a short, often one-word answer, such as "How many times have you tried to log in?". ​ Open questions don't have an obvious answer and may elicit an opinion , such as "Why are you using Internet Explorer instead of Google Chrome?". ​ Avoid leading questions - where you expect a certain response from the answerer, such as "Is the system always this slow?" Written Communication Again this form of communication can be formal - such as a letter to apply for a job - or informal - like sending a text or instant message to a team member. ​ There are a number of considerations to take before deciding whether communication should be formal or informal. For example, if the communication is between peers or external agencies (such as other companies or customers), any policies the organisation has in place and whether the communication will be legally recorded (such as saving all email correspondence). Barriers to Communication There are several reasons why a messages between people may be received incorrectly . ​ For example noise , language (not necessarily different languages but using technical terms) and physical barriers (i.e. learning difficulties or disabilities such as deafness). Another barrier is distraction - an email may be delayed because an employee is distracted by social media or other co-workers. Phones should also be turned off or to silent during meetings. Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1 - Communication Skills: 1. Describe 3 interpersonal actions that an employee should follow when speaking or listening to other team members. [ 3 ] 2. Explain when an employee should use technical terms and when they should simplify their explanations . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Describe the difference between closed , open and leading questions , giving an example of each. [6 ] ​ 4. Describe 3 things that should be considered when deciding between formal or informal written communication . [3 ] ​ 5. Describe 3 different barriers to successful communication . [3 ] 3.5 - Business Systems Topic List 4.2 - Communication Technology

  • Python | 8b - 2D Lists | CSNewbs

    top Python 8b - 2D Lists Creating a List with Multiple Dimensions Lists can be given another dimension to hold data that is related to each other . ​ A scenario: Three students have taken two Chemistry tests, and their teacher has recorded the results in a 2-dimensional array (note that Python does not use arrays but uses lists instead): To create this in Python: Printing a 2D List To print the whole list, use a for loop to cycle through each record. ​ I have altered the normal i variable to be 'record', so it is more descriptive: Use the index number to print a specific record . Look at the table above and remember that Python starts counting at 0 so Edward is record 0, Bella 1 and Jacob 2: To print a specific data value, you need to define the record number and then the data index . ​ When using 2D lists, the first value is the row, and the second value is the column . Use the table at the very top to help you visualise this: Practice Task 1 Use the introduction at the top to help you create a 2D list with three friends in the first column, their age in the second column and their favourite colour in the third column. ​ Print the whole list. ​ Then print just the second person's information. Example solution: Searching Through a 2D List To search through a multi-dimensional list then you need to search through each record and then each data element for a specific value: Practice Task 2 Use the 2D list that you created in the first practice task. ​ Ask the user to enter a name. ​ Search through the list and print the record of that person's name. Example solution: ⬅ 8a - Using Lists 8 c - Dictionaries ➡

  • Python | 8c - Dictionaries | CSNewbs

    top Python 8C - Dictionaries Creating a Dictionary Dictionaries are used in Python to link items of data together . The example on this page uses a footballer dictionary which links a player with a team they played for. To define a dictionary, use curly brackets { } and separate linked data with a colon . ​ A dictionary can be written on one line but the method below makes it easier to read: Printing Data from a Dictionary The first part of the linked data in a dictionary is called the key (e.g. each footballer in my example above). ​ The second part of the linked data in a dictionary is called the value (e.g. each team). ​ Example: ​ key : value "Harry Kane" : "Tottenham Hotspur" ​ A for loop can be used to cycle through each set of keys and values in the dictionary: Practice Task 1 a) Create a dictionary of your teachers and the subject they teach. ​ b) Print their name and the subject they teach on each line. Example solution: Adding and Removing Data from a Dictionary Data can be added to a dictionary by stating the new key and value . You must use square brackets - [ ] ​ The new data will be added to the end of the dictionary. You can print the whole dictionary to see any changes - e.g. print(playerdictionary) Data can be removed from a dictionary by stating the new key to remove in a pop command. You can print the whole dictionary to see any changes - e.g. print(playerdictionary) The whole dictionary can be cleared (reset to blank) using the clear command. Practice Task 2 a) Ask the user to enter a new teacher and their subject. ​ b) Ask the user to remove a teacher. ​ c) Print the list of teachers and check the new teacher has been added and the other one removed. Example solution: Searching Through a Dictionary An if statement can be used to check if a specific key is in a dictionary. ​ If the key is in the dictionary then a message can be displayed using the key and the value . Otherwise, an else statement can output an appropriate response. To search for a value in a dictionary a for loop should be used to cycle through each key . If the value of each key matches the value that is being searched for then it will be printed. Practice Task 3 a) Create a search that allows a user to enter a teacher's name and prints the subject that they teach. ​ b) Include an else statement to print a response if a teacher is not in the dictionary. Example solution: Changing Data & Copying a Dictionary The way to change values is similar to adding new data. The first input below is to determine the key and the second input determines the new value to be changed to. The copy command is used to make a duplicate of a dictionary . Practice Task 4 a) Create a copy of your teacher dictionary. ​ b) Allow the user to enter a teacher and a new subject that they teach. ​ c) Print the copy of the dictionary with the new values. Example solution: Using a Dictionary to Make a Game The code below is used to make a puzzle game where the user has to type in a footballer and the team they played for. ​ I have added comments to explain the different parts of the code. ​ A separate list has been created at the start to store the names of keys (players) that been correctly guessed . ​ A while loop is used to constantly ask the user for players and teams. When they have guessed all 10 players (and the correct list reaches 10 ) the loop breaks and the game end. Instead of a further practice task here, Task 6 of the Section 8 Practice tasks page challenges you to make a similar game using a dictionary. ⬅ 8b - 2D Lists Section 8 Practice Tasks ➡

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