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4.2 - Global Legislation

Exam Board:



2016 - Unit 2 

Data Protection Outside of the UK

Personal data should not be transferred outside of the UK unless the country receiving the data has adequate data protection laws that match the Data Protection Act (2018) / GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation).

GDPR was introduced in all European Union (EU) countries in 2018. This set of regulations ensure that personal data is protected and can be sent between EU countries. However, many other countries only have partially adequate data protection laws (such as the USA and Canada) whilst many nations have inadequate or no laws regarding data protection.

Click the map button to visit CNIL's website and see exactly which countries have adequate, inadequate and no data protection laws.


UNCRPD stands for United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.


This is a United Nations human right that states disabled people should be able to 'access information systems' (article 9) and 'use digital means to express their opinion' (article 21).

Methods of complying with this convention include:​

Personal data can be sent between European countries (such as the UK) and the United States because of a protection scheme which was known as the 'Safe Harbour' scheme (between 2000 and 2015) and the 'EU-US Privacy Shield' (between 2015 and 2020). 

This provided protection to European data in the US and required both companies engaged in data transaction to sign up to the scheme before personal data could be transferred. The companies must have been assessed as responsible for the security of the data.

The scheme was stopped in July 2020 because the European Court of Justice argued it did not adequately protect the personal data of Europeans from government access.

  • Using <alt> text on images so that text-to-speech software can describe the image aloud, for the visually impaired. The <alt> tag can be added to the HTML code of an image on a website and will be audibly spoken by specialist reading software.

A laptop, Xbox and phone on a desk.

This image contains alt text that can't be seen by a typical viewer but will be read aloud by screen reading software.

  • Accessibility settings. Websites could allow users to change the font size and style or change the background colour to make text easier to read. Wikipedia presents some articles to be listened to if the user is unable to read them.

Example Text

Example Text

Example Text

Example Text

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Questo's Questions

4.2 - Global Legislation:

1a. What is the problem with transferring data outside of the UK? [2]

1b. Why can personal data be transferred between European countries? [2]

2. Open the CNIL map (use the link on this page and click on a specific country to see its name) and state:

  • Four countries in the EU

  • Two countries with partially adequate protection

  • Two countries with an authority and law (dark purple)

  • Two countries with laws only (light purple)

  • Four countries with no data protection laws        [7]

3a. What is UNCRPD and why is it important? [3]

3b. Describe what alt text is used for. [2]

3c. State three accessibility settings that could affect how easy text is to read. [3]

EU-US Privacy Shield

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