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2.3 - Quality of Information

Exam Board:



2016 - Unit 2 

Information Characteristics

Valid Information

  • This is correct, up-to-date and complete information that fits its purpose. For example, detailed end-of-year financial data in the form of graphs.

Biased Information

  • This is technically correct, but slanted, information that presents a one-sided view. For example, end-of year financial data that focuses on profits and ignores significant losses.

Relevant Information

  • Information should be appropriate for the required purpose. Irrelevant information may get in the way of correct decision making.

Accurate Information

  • Information should be carefully selected and entirely correct, inaccurate information can lead to unwanted consequences such as higher costs and missed deadlines.

Reliable Information

  • Information from a source that can be verified and confirmed to be correct. For example, BBC News is a more reliable information source than social media posts.

Information Quality

The quality of information that an organisation uses will have a significant impact on further processes and decisions.

Good quality information that is accurate, valid or reliable can lead to better strategic decisions, meeting deadlines and innovation.

Poor quality information that is biased, inaccurate or out of date may lead to negative consequences such as loss of customer trust, fines and legal challenges.

Positive Effects of Good Quality Information

Reliable information received by the management team.

Good quality research information.

Good quality sales information.

Accurate cost projection information.

Informed decisions with a higher chance of success.

Can lead to innovation and better understanding.

Strategic decisions and planning ahead.

Projects will stay within their budget.

Accurate time expectations.

Projects will be completed on time.

Negative Effects of Poor Quality Information

Biased survey with inaccurate results.

Inaccurate stock information.

Out of date information received by management.

Inaccurate data has led to poor reviews online.

Inaccurate time expectations.

Misinformed decisions, not responding to customers needs.


Inaccurate delivery times, customers unhappy. Too much / little stock.

Miss out on opportunities, possible fall in profits.

Loss of customer trust, loss of customers and reputation. Financial issues.

Projects take longer, cost more, stakeholders unhappy. Possible project failure.

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Questo's Questions

2.3 - Quality of Information:

1. Describe 5 characteristics of information. [10]

2. Explain 5 positive impacts of good quality information. [10]

3. Explain 5 negative impacts of poor quality information. [10]

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