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  • Scams & Staying Safe | Key Stage 3 | CSNewbs

    Scams & Staying Safe Part 1: Phishing Scams A phishing scam is when an attacker will send you an email pretending to be someone you trust . They are trying to get your username, password or other sensitive information . What does a phishing email look like? A phishing email might be sent from a long, unrecognisable email address . A phishing email might contain spelling mistakes , so look carefully. An attacker might not know your name , so they will use your email address. Check any links carefully , if it looks suspicious, don't click it. Phishing emails try to rush you into making a silly decision. Don't panic and read the email carefully. Part 2: Secure webpages When you are browsing the web , you should stick to websites that you know and trust. Don't click on any links that you don't recognise , especially from strangers . How do i know a web page is secure? HTTP is a protocol (set of rules) for displaying a web page . ​ If the web address at the top of your web browser starts with HTTP then it is not secure . ​ Do not enter any personal information on an insecure web page. HTTPS is a protocol (set of rules) for displaying a secure web page. If you see a padlock in the address bar of your web browser then you know it is safer to enter information . Part 3: Strong passwords Your passwords must be secure so they cannot be broken easily. How to choose a strong password: ********* Passwords should be more than at least 8 characters long. Passwords should use numbers and punctuation marks . Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Passwords should use uppercase and lowercase letters . You should use a different password for each account that you have. Passwords should not use words found in the dictionary . KS3 Home

  • HTML Guide 6 - Organisation | CSNewbs

    6. Organisation HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: This page explains the following tags which can be used to structure a simple page layout: ​​ Horizontal Line Centre Quote Bullet Points Numbered Points hr Horizontal Line You can add a horizontal line by simply adding to your document. ​ There is no close tag. Add at least one horizontal line to your web page. center Centre Align This tag places the content within the tags on the centre of the page . ​ Be careful - you need to use the American spelling - 'center ' - in your tags. Add tags to place your main heading in the centre of the page. blockquote Blockquote A blockquote is used to display a quote from another person or place. ​ Text is indented further from the margin than the other content. ​ It is not used very often, but can be found in some online articles and essays. Add at least one block quote to your web page. uo list Unordered List An unordered list is a set of bullet points . ​ The tag is placed before the bullet points and afterwards. ​ Each bullet point is placed within tags. That stands for list item . Add either an unordered or ordered list to your web page. Include at least three items in your list. o list Ordered List An ordered list will number each line . ​ The tag is placed before the list and afterwards. ​ Each list item is placed within tags. Add either an unordered or ordered list to your web page. Include at least three items in your list. Next it is time to add tags to the head, including a page title and metadata. 5. Images HTML Guide 7. Head Tags

  • 5.2 - Integrated Development Environment - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 5.2: Integrated Development Environment An IDE (Integrated Development Environment ) provides programmers with the following facilities (tools ) to help create programs : Editor The editor is software that allows a programmer to enter and edit source code . ​ Editor features may include: ​ Automatic formatting (e.g. automatic indentation). Automatic line numbering (this helps to identify exactly where an error has occurred). Automatic colour coding (e.g. Python IDLE turns loop commands orange and print commands purple). Statement completion (e.g. offering to auto-complete a command as the user is typing.) Error Diagnostics & Debugger Break point The programmer selects a specific line and the program displays the variable values at that point . The code can then be executed one line at a time to find exactly where the error occurs. This process is called single-stepping . Variable Watch / Watch Window cost Displays the current value of a selected variable . ​ A variable can be watched line-by-line to see how the value changes . Trace Logs the values of variables and outputs of the program a s the code is executed line by line . Both tools are used to display information about an error when it occurs, such as the line it occurred on and the error type (e.g. syntax ). These tools may also suggest solutions to help the programmer to find and fix the error . Compilers & Interpreters Both tools convert the source code written by a programmer into machine code to be executed by the CPU. A compiler converts the entire source code into executable machine code at once . After compilation, the program can be run again without having to recompile each time. ​ An interpreter converts source code into machine code line by line . An interpreter must reinterpret the code each time the program is required to run . See 5.1 for both types of translators. A runtime environment allows a program to run on a computer system. It checks for runtime errors and allows users to test the program . ​ A runtime error occurs as the program is being executed , such as dividing a number by zero . ​ A commonly used example is the Java Runtime Environment . This allows programmers to design a program on one platform ( using the programming language Java ) which allows the finished program to then be run on many others systems . ​ A runtime environment enables the tools above such as a trace and breakpoint to be used. Run Time Environment Q uesto's Q uestions 5.2 - Integrated Development Environment: ​ 1. Describe the purpose of each type of IDE tool : a. Editor b. Interpreter c. Compiler d. Error Diagnostics / Debugger e. Break point f. Variable Watch / Watch Window g. Trace h. Runtime Environment [ 2 each ] 5.1 - Languages & Translators Theory Topics

  • Python | 4a - If Statements | CSNewbs

    top Python 4a - If Statements If Statements Selection is one of three constructs of programming , along with Sequence (logical order) and Iteration (loops). ​ An if statement is a conditional statement that performs a specific action based on conditional values. Essentially, if thing A is true , then thing B will happen . If the user answers yes to the window question, then an appropriate statement is printed. ​ Double equals stands for ‘is equal to ‘. ​ The colon stands for THEN and the line after an if statement must be indented (press tab key once). answer = input ( "Is the window open? " ) if answer == "yes" : print ( "It's chilly in here!" ) Is the window open? yes It's chilly in here! But what if the window is not open? At the moment nothing will happen if you type no: Is the window open? no The elif command stands for else if . Essentially: If thing A is true then do thing B, else if thing C is true then do thing D: But what about any other answer than yes or no? The else command will submit a response if the value is anything else. The if and elif commands have a colon at the end, but else has it at the start. Also, else does not need to be on a new line. answer = input ( "Is the window open? " ) if answer == "yes" : print ( "It's chilly in here!" ) elif answer == "no" : print ( "It's quite hot in here!" ) answer = input ( "Is the window open? " ) if answer == "yes" : print ( "It's chilly in here!" ) elif answer == "no" : print ( "It's quite hot in here!" ) else : print ( "I'm not sure what you mean." ) Is the window open? no It's quite hot in here! Is the window open? banana I'm not sure what you mean. If Statements Task 1 ( Left or Right?) Use an input line to ask the user whether they want to turn left or right . ​ Print a sentence of your choice if they chose left and a different sentence if they chose right . ​ Include an else statement in case the user doesn't input left or right. Example solutions: There is a path ahead. Do you turn left or right? left The path turns and twists until it reaches a cliff. Dead end! There is a path ahead. Do you turn left or right? right A snake slithers across the path and bites your leg. Oh no! There is a path ahead. Do you turn left or right? backwards That's not an option! Nested If Statements Complex programs may require you to have if statements within if statements - when programming, one thing inside another is known as nesting . You must make sure that the related if , elif and else statements line up with each other . Use the tab key to indent a line. outer if inner if weather = input ( "What is the weather like today? " ) if weather == "sunny" : sunny = input ( "How hot is it? " ) if sunny == "very hot" : print ( "Take some sunglasses with you!" ) elif sunny == "cool" : print ( "Maybe take a jacket just in case?" ) else : print ( "Enjoy the sunshine!" ) ​ elif weather == "rainy" : print ( "Take an umbrella!" ) ​ else : print ( "Have a good day!" ) = What is the weather like today? rainy Take an umbrella! = What is the weather like today? sunny How hot is it? cool Maybe take a jacket just in case? = What is the weather like today? snowy Have a good day! = What is the weather like today? sunny How hot is it? very hot Take some sunglasses with you! If Statements Task 2 ( Nested Ifs) Use the weather program above as an example to help you write your own program with a nested if for at least one option. ​ Be careful to have your nested if's if, elif and else statements in line with each other. ​ Your program doesn't have to be about juice. Example solutions: Would you like orange, apple or tomato juice? orange Would you like your orange juice smooth or with bits? smooth One smooth orange juice coming up! Would you like orange, apple or tomato juice? orange Would you like your orange juice smooth or with bits? bits A pulpy orange juice is on its way! Would you like orange, apple or tomato juice? tomato Yuck, you can't be serious? Using Selection with Numbers Comparison operators such as > (greater than ) > = (greater than or equal to ) < (less than ) and < = (less than or equal to ) can be used with if statements. Logical operators such as and and or can also be used - more about them in section 4c . ​ When comparing a variable's value to a specific number, such as 50, don't forget to use double equals ( == ) . Python Comparison Operators score = int ( input ( "Enter the maths test score: " )) if score == 50: print ( "You scored top marks!" ) elif score >= 40 and score < 50: print ( "You scored a great grade!" ) elif score >= 20 and score < 40: print ( "You did okay in the test." ) else : print ( "You have to try harder next time!" ) = Enter the maths test score: 50 You scored top marks! = Enter the maths test score: 43 You scored a great grade! = Enter the maths test score: 20 You did okay in the test. = Enter the maths test score: 13 You have to try harder next time! If Statements Task 3 ( Fastest lap) A racing video game has a challenging track that players try to get a quick lap on. The current fastest lap time is 37 seconds . ​ Ask the player to enter their lap time and print a response based on their input . ​ You need individual responses for the following inputs: ​ Faster than 37 seconds. Between 37 seconds and 59 seconds. Between 60 seconds and 90 seconds. Slower than 90 seconds. Example solutions: Enter your lap time: 35 You have set a new record!!! Enter your lap time: 59 You did well this time! Enter your lap time: 83 A little bit slow this time! Enter your lap time: 110 Were you even trying!?! Hurry up! Not Equal To The opposite of equal to ( == ) is not equal to ( != ). != is often used with while loops to repeat code while an input is not what is expected , for example repeatedly asking for a password while the input is not equal to "fluffythecat123". ​ The code below uses != for an incorrect answer (although it could easily be re-written to use == for a correct answer). answer = input ( "What is the capital of Eritrea? " ) if answer != "Asmara" : print ( "That is incorrect! It is Asmara." ) else : print ( "You got it right!" ) = What is the capital of Eritrea? Asmara You got it right! = What is the capital of Eritrea? Windhoek That is incorrect! It is Asmara. If Statements Task 4 ( True or False? ) Come up with your own true or false question that the user has to respond to. Depending on their answer , print whether they got it right or wrong . ​ You may want to use an if statement with == for a correct answer or != for an incorrect answer , there's multiple ways to write this program. Example solutions: There are 140 million miles between Earth and Mars. TRUE or FALSE? TRUE That is correct! It is really that far! There are 140 million miles between Earth and Mars. TRUE or FALSE? FALSE You got it wrong, there really are 140 million miles between us! ⬅ Section 3 Practice Tasks 4b - Mathematical Operators ➡

  • 6.1 - Security Principles | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    6.1 - Security Principles Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 There are three key principles of data security that are protected in legislation such as the Data Protection Act (2018 ). Organisations storing personal or sensitive information must ensure that these three principles are upheld at all times . Confidentiality What it means: Information should only be accessed by individuals or groups with the authorisation to do so. ​ How to uphold this principle: An organisation should use protection measures like usernames and passwords to ensure that only authorised people can access the sensitive data. Tiered levels of access or permissions can also limit who has access to the data. Integrity What it means: Information is maintained so that it is up-to-date , correct and fit for purpose . ​ How to uphold this principle: Organisations should carry out regular data maintenance to update information (e.g. confirm contact details once a year). If storing data in a spreadsheet or database, record-locking should be used so that only person can edit at a time, preventing the data from becoming incorrect. Availability What it means: Information is available to the individuals or groups that need to use it. It should only be available to those who are authorised . ​ How to uphold this principle: Staff should have the correct privileges so that they can easily access data when required. Data could be stored online , e.g. cloud storage so that it is available remotely using an internet connection. Data must also be kept safe from unauthorised access . Staff should not make additional copies of information which could be lost or stolen. Q uesto's Q uestions 6.1 - Security Principles: ​ 1a. Describe what is meant by ' confidentiality ' . [1 ] 1b. Explain two ways that an organisation can keep data confidential . [4 ] ​ 2a. Describe what is meant by ' integrity ' . [1 ] 2b. Explain two ways that an organisation can preserve the integrity of its data . [4 ] ​ 3a. Describe what is meant by ' availability ' . [2 ] 3b. Explain two ways that an organisation can keep its data available . [4 ] 5.2 - Data Flow Diagrams Topic List 6.2 - Risks

  • 2.4a - Number Storage - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    2.4a: Number Storage Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 What is binary? By now you should know that computer systems process data and communicate entirely in binary . ​ Topic 2.3 explained different binary storage units such as bits (a single 0 or 1), nibbles (4 bits) and bytes (8 bits). ​ Binary is a base 2 number system. This means that it only has 2 possible values - 0 or 1 . What is denary? Denary (also known as decimal ) is the number system that you've been using since primary school. ​ Denary is a base 10 number system. This means that it has 10 possible values - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 . How to convert from binary to denary: How to convert from denary to binary: Binary & Denary What is hexadecimal? Hexadecimal is a base 16 number system. This means that it has 16 possible values - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F . ​ Hexadecimal is used as a shorthand for binary because it uses fewer characters to write the same value . This makes hexadecimal less prone to errors when reading or writing it , compared to binary. For example, 100111101011 in binary is 9EB in hexadecimal. ​ Hexadecimal only uses single-character values. Double-digit numbers are converted into letters - use the table on the right to help you understand. How to convert from binary to hexadecimal: How to convert from hexadecimal to binary: Hexadecimal Converting from denary to hexadecimal / hexadecimal to denary To convert from denary to hexadecimal or the other way round you must convert to binary first . ​ Denary > Binary > Hexadecimal ​ Hexadecimal > Binary > Denary ​ Use the videos on this page if you need help converting to or from binary. ​ The most common number systems question in exams are from denary to hexadecimal or from hexadecimal to denary so make sure that you practice these conversions. Binary Addition Binary addition is a method of adding binary values without having to convert them into denary. How to add binary numbers: What is an overflow error? An overflow error occurs when a binary value is too large to be stored in the bits available . ​ With a byte (8 bits ) the largest number that can be held is 255 . Therefore any sum of two binary numbers that is greater than 255 will result in an overflow error as it is too large to be held in 8 bits . What is binary shift? Binary shift is used to multiply and divide binary numbers . The effect of shifting left is to multiply a binary number. The effect is doubled by each place that is shifted . x The effect of shifting right is to divide a binary number. ÷ Shifting by 1 has an effect of 2 . ​ Shifting by 2 has an effect of 4 . ​ Shifting by 3 has an effect of 8 . For example, shifting left by 2 places has an effect of multiplying by 4 . Another example: Shifting right by 3 places has an effect of diving by 8 . How to shift a binary number: Q uesto's Q uestions 2.4a - Number Systems: ​ 1. Explain why hexadecimal numbers are used as an alternative to binary . Use an example . [ 3 ] ​ 2. Convert the following values from binary to denary : a. 00101010 b. 11011011 c. 01011101 d. 11101110 e. 01011111 [1 each ] ​ 3. Convert the following values from denary to binary : a. 35 b. 79 c. 101 d. 203 e. 250 [1 each ] ​ 4. Convert the following values from binary to hexadecimal : a. 11110101 b. 01100111 c. 10111010 d. 10010000 e. 11101001 [1 each ] ​ 5. Convert the following values from hexadecimal to binary : a. C2 b. 8A c. DE d. 54 e. F7 [1 each ] ​ 6. Convert the following values from denary to hexadecimal : a. 134 b. 201 c. 57 d. 224 e. 101 [1 each ] ​ 7. Convert the following values from hexadecimal to denary : a. 32 b. A5 c. 88 d. C0 e. BE [1 each ] Binary Addition: ​ 1. Explain what an overflow error is. [ 2 ] ​ 2. Add together the following binary values. If an overflow error occurs you must state one has occurred. a. 010110012 and 010001012 [2 ] b. 110110112 and 010111012 [2 ] c. 001101102 and 011010112 [2 ] d. 110110112 and 010101112 [2 ] e. 011011012 and 110101102 [2 ] ​ ​ Binary Shift: ​ 1a. Draw a diagram to show the effect of multiplying and dividing a binary number . [2 ] 1b. Draw a diagram or table to show the effect a shift has for each place from 1 to 4 . For example, a shift of 1 place has an effect of 2. [4 ] ​ 2. State the effect of the following shifts: a. Shift right by 2 places. b. Shift left by 1 place. c. Shift left 3 places. d. Shift right by 4 places. [ 1 each ] ​ 3. Shift the following binary numbers and state the effect of the shift: a. 10101011 : Shift left by 2 places. b. 11101100 : Shift right by 3 place. c. 00001011 : Shift right by 2 places. d. 01101110 : Shift left by 1 place. [ 2 each ] Binary Shifts Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Click the banners below to try self-marking quizzes (Google Form) on these topics. Binary to Denary: Binary to Hexadecimal: Denary to Binary: Hexadecimal to Binary: 2.3 - Data Units Theory Topics 2.4b - Character Storage

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 2.4 - Operating Systems | CSNewbs

    2.4: Operating Systems Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 An operating system (OS) is software that manages the resources of a computer system . The operating system is loaded by the BIOS (Basic Input / Output System). Types of Operating System Single user operating systems are found on most desktop computers, laptops and tablets where only one person will use the device at a single time. Multi-user operating systems allow more than one user to access the processor simultaneously , such as a Unix server where remote users have access. One user should not be negatively impacted by another user on the same operating system. Single Processor operating systems have only a single processor (CPU), which is shared between users by dividing the CPU time into time-slices and allocating one of these to each user in turn. The time-slices are very short, giving each user the impression that their programs are running continuously. Multiple Processor operating systems have more than one processor (CPU). Users still have to share processors and it is a more complicated system but performance is improved as there are fewer users per processor. Some supercomputers have thousands of processors running in parallel. Operating systems can also be off-the-shelf , open-source or bespoke . See 2.1 . What are the roles of an Operating System? Manage Input / Output Devices Receives data from input devices (e.g. a keyboard). Sends data to output devices (e.g. a monitor) in the correct format . Manage Printing Checks the printer is free then uses spooling (storing data in a queue ) to print documents in order. Manage Backing (Secondary) Storage Ensures data is stored correctly and can be retrieved from secondary storage devices (e.g. hard drive / SSD ). Organises files in a hierarchical structure. Manage Memory (RAM) Ensures that programs / data do not corrupt each other and are stored in correct memory locations . Manage Processes Ensures different processes can utilise the CPU and do not interfere with each other or crash. On most OS the tasks appear to run simultaneously . Manage Security ​Allows users to create, manage and delete user accounts with different permissions. Allows users to logon and change passwords . User Interface The final function of an operating system is to provide a user interface . This includes: ​ A folder and file system is displayed and manipulated allowing for copying , searching , sorting and deleting data. Icons are displayed to represent shortcuts to applications and files. Multiple windows can be opened at the same time and switched between. The interface can be customised , such as changing font sizes and the desktop background . ​ System settings can be accessed such as network and hardware options . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.4 - Operating Systems: ​ 1. Describe five different roles of the operating system. Include the importance of the operating system in performing each role. [ 5 ] ​ 2. What is the difference between single user and multi-user operating systems? [2 ] ​ 3. What is the difference between single processing and multi-processing operating systems? [2 ] ​ 4. Using your knowledge from 2.1 Software Types, explain two advantages and one disadvantage to a company if they decided to use a closed source operating system. [6 ] 2.3 Utility Software Topic List 2.5 Communication Methods

  • Old Eduqas Topics (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Topics from the 2016 Eduqas Specification This page contains information from the 2016 Eduqas specification that was removed for the 2020 specification. ​Quick Links: ​ Buses & Instruction Sets (RISC & CISC) Protocols (IMAP & POP3) Network Devices (Gateway) Human-Computer Interaction (Command-Line Interface, Touch-Sensitive Interface, Menu-Driven Interface, Voice-Driven Interface) Cyber Attacks (Dictionary Attack, Buffer Overflow, Human Weakness) Software Protection (Secure by Design, Too Many Permissions, Scripting Restrictions, Validation with Parameters) Data Policies (Acceptable Use Policy, Disaster Recovery, Cookies) Environmental Issues (Tips to Reduce Waste, Positive Impacts of Technology) Object Oriented Programming (Greenfoot and Java) Programming Topics (Assembly Language, HTML, Greenfoot) Buses Buses & Instruction Sets Buses Data is transferred within a computer system along pathways called buses . ​ There are three types of bus: Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus Sends a memory address of where data is stored.​​ The address is sent from the CPU to RAM in the FDE cycle. Transfers data between components. Data is sent both ways . Sends control signals from the control unit to other components of the system. Status signals are sent back to the CPU. An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has fewer instructions than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but quick for basic tasks . CISC has more complex instructions available and can therefore perform complicated tasks . Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. Protocols Protocols POP3 ( Post Office Protocol 3 ) and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol ) are both protocols for receiving and storing emails from a mail server. Gateway Network Devices Gateway A gateway joins together two networks that use different base protocols . For example, a gateway could link together a LAN to a WAN . HCI Human - Computer Interaction Command-Line Interface Touch-Sensitive Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a command-line interface (CLI ). This type of interface is entirely text-based and requires users to interact with the system by typing commands . This is a complicated process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only experts who have been trained t o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. Another type of user interface is a touch-sensitive interface , used with smartphones and tablets . ​ A human interacts with the device by pressing on a touchscreen , making it very intuitive and suitable for most users without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may not work with dirty or wet fingers and it will take longer to write text compared to using a keyboard. Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface displays data in a series of linked menus . Examples include cash machines (ATMs) and old iPods . ​ This type of interface is generally user friendly and easy to use as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be annoying to find specific data through a large number of menus without a search feature. Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be controlled by speaking commands aloud to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's Alexa devices, Apple's Siri technology and Google Home . ​ This interface is intuitive , can be used hands-free and helps to speed up processes . However commands may be misheard or limited in what can be performed. Cyber Attacks Cyber Attacks Dictionary Password Attack This uses a file containing every word in the dictionary and cycles through them all. This method is relatively easy to program but will only break the simplest passwords . Buffer Overflow Attack A buffer is a temporary storage location . ​ A buffer overflow attack causes a program to try to store more data in a buffer than it can hold which can lead to adjacent memory locations being overwritten . An attacker can use the buffer overflow to insert malicious code to change data or steal confidential data . Human Weakness The biggest weakness in online security is often not the systems in place but carelessness or mistakes made by humans . Social engineering means to trick others into revealing their personal data by posing as a trusted source . For example, impersonating an IT technician via email and asking to send a username and password. Humans can accidentally compromise data by downloading malicious files or being unsafe online, like using the same password for multiple different accounts. Attackers can access unauthorised information in person by shoulder surfing and watching them as they enter sensitive data such as a PIN or password. Software Protection Software Protection The following methods of protection are considered in the design, testing and creation stages of developing software . Secure by Design This method puts security as the most important concept when creating and designing software . ​ By focusing on security when designing software there should be less need for later updates and patches and attacks are less likely to succeed . Too Many Permissions Apps require permission to use device features (such as the camera or microphone of a smartphone) when they are downloaded. Programmers should only request permission for features that the software requires . ​ Some malicious apps steal data or spy on users - and the worst part is that you've given permission for it to do it! Users can avoid suspicious apps by reading reviews, checking there are no unnecessary permission requests , only downloading the software you need / will use and uninstall apps if permissions change . Scripting Restrictions A script is a set of instructions executed on a website. For example, Facebook uses a JavaScript script to post a status and another to read your private messages. ​ The Same Origin Policy (SOP) is a security precaution that prevents websites from using scripts on other sites that you have open . For example, if you are using JavaScript to post a status on Facebook then visit an infected site, that site can't also use JavaScript to access your Facebook data, because even though they both use JavaScript, they are from a different origin . Without SOP an infected website could access personal data or infect a computer with malware by maliciously using the same scripts as other websites you have used . Programmers should set scripting restrictions when creating websites. Validation with Parameters A parameter is a measure that is used when validating data , it is usually a range or limit. For example, the parameters of a length check may be whether the data is between 1 and 10 characters . ​ Programmers must ensure validation is used on websites with suitable parameters to prevent attacks such as an SQL injection. Data Policies Data Policies Data policies are written documents that clearly define how data should be managed in an organisation. It is important that all employees stick to these policies and requirements so that data is kept safe and can be replaced if lost or corrupted. The following methods are examples of common data policies. Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Workplaces and schools often require people to sign an acceptable use policy (AUP) before being allowed to use the network. It is a list of rules and expected behaviour that users must follow when using the computer systems. Typical rules include: Which websites are off-limits (such as social media or gambling sites), Download permissions (such as who can download and install software) Email communication (such as appropriate language). Punishments if rules of the AUP are broken. ​ The AUP is sometimes known as a Code of Conduct . This is an example of a formal code of practice , with written rules and clear expectations . An informal code of practice would not be officially written down , such as personal habits and preferences (e.g. email layout or desk organisation). Disaster Recovery With important data often stored on a computer network, it is absolutely vital that a detailed and effective disaster recovery policy is in place in the event of data being lost due to an unexpected disaster. ​ Disasters include natural disasters (e.g. fire, flood, lightning), hardware failure (e.g. power supply unit failing), software failure (e.g. virus damage) and malicious damage (e.g. hacking). ​ ​ There are three clear parts to a disaster recovery policy:​​ ​ Before the disaster: All of the possible risks should be analysed to spot if there are any weaknesses in preparation. Preventative measures should be taken after the analysis, such as making rooms flood-proof or storing important data at a different location . Staff training should take place to inform employees what should happen in the event of a disaster. During the disaster: The staff response is very important – employees should follow their training and ensure that data is protected and appropriate measures are put in place. Contingency plans should be implemented while the disaster is taking place, such as uploading recent data to cloud storage or securing backups in a safe room and using alternative equipment until the disaster is over. After the disaster: Recovery measures should be followed, such as using backups to repopulate computer systems. Replacement hardware needs to be purchased for equipment that is corrupted or destroyed. Software needs to be reinstalled on the new hardware. Disaster recovery policies should also be updated and improved . Cookies A cookie is a small piece of data that is stored by websites when you visit them. They allow the website to identify the user and are often used to speed up processes , such as: Automatic login (by saving account details) Save items into a basket (such as pizza delivery sites) Display adverts related to your previous search terms . Although they can be used to save time, some argue that cookies can be intrusive and store too much information. Environmental Issues Environmental Issues Tips to Reduce Waste Turn off computers , monitors and other connected devices when not in use . Adjust power options to help minimise power consumption.​ ​Devices with the Energy Star sticker use between 30% and 70% less electricity than usual. Repair older devices rather than throwing them away. Ink jet printers use up to 95% less energy than laser jets.​​ Think twice about printing paper, don't waste ink and remember to recycle paper . Positive Environmental Impacts Communication advancements (such as video messengers) reduces pollution as people do not have to travel to speak to each other. This is especially beneficial in business - workers can talk from the office and do not need to catch a plane to speak. Smart devices can monitor usage and reduce energy waste - such as smart air conditioners and home security systems. Collaboration software (such as cloud-based technology and Google Docs) allows experts to work together and share data. The internet and research databases allows scientists to study the environment more efficiently. Documents can be viewed on a screen rather than printed out - books and newspaper articles can be read on kindles / tablets saving paper and ink . New materials and more environmentally-friendly processes have been developed thanks to increased technology and research. Object Oriented Programming Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Java is an example of object-oriented programming (OOP) where a programmer is able to code objects that can be visually placed onto a background. Greenfoot is an IDE for Java . Superclass A class from which other 'subclasses' will inherit characteristics ; e.g. hippos, crocodiles and polar bears will inherit properties from the Animals superclass. Object A single object from a class ; e.g. one crocodile object from the Crocodile class. Class A set of objects which share the same properties ; e.g. all PolarBears will behave in a similar way. Comment Two / symbols will allow you to write a comment to explain the code . Method A series of instructions that an object will follow . The act() method will loop in Greenfoot when the play button is pressed. Programming Programming Topics Variable Scope & Lifetime The scope of a variable refers to the parts of the program where the variable can be viewed and used , e.g. a variable with global scope can be accessed anywhere in the program . The lifetime of a variable is the amount of time the variable is stored in memory and therefore can be used , e.g. local variables can only be accessed throughout the subroutine they are created in. Programming Languages: Assembly Language HTML Greenfoot Theory Topics

  • CSN+ Preview | CSNewbs

    About CSNewbs Plus (CSN+) CSN+ is a premium collection of resources made for teachers that follows the Computer Science specifications covered on the website . ​ Currently, these resources are in development , with the Eduqas GCSE resource pack arriving first, based on the Eduqas GCSE Computer Science 2020 specification . < Free zip folder download of all resources for Eduqas GCSE topic 1.1 (The CPU) *Updated Jan 2021* ​ Resources included for each topic: Lesson Slides Starter activity (to print) Task resources (e.g. diagrams or worksheets to print) Task answers What is included in the CSNewbs+ GCSE collection? 39 presentation slides 39 starters 39 task answer documents 19 revision activity pages 7 topic tests & answers ​ ​ See below for more details: + Complete presentation slides for each of the 39 theory topics in the Eduqas GCSE 2020 specification . ​ PowerPoint and Google Slides compatible. Activity resources to print . Including diagrams , tables and worksheets for lesson tasks . All answers included for teachers to use. Starter questions that recap the previous topic. For teachers to print before the lesson. All answers included in the lesson slides. 39 starters . Comprehensive answers for all lesson tasks . 39 task answer documents containing answers for over 100 lesson tasks for teachers to use . Revision templates for students to complete, to print on A3 paper . 19 pages and 7 revision lesson slides . Exercise book headings and the driving question (lesson focus) 7 end-of-topic tests with brand new questions . All answers included for teachers. What is included on the presentation slides? The following breakdown shows the presentation slides for 1.1 (The CPU): A title slide The content covered from the Eduqas GCSE specification Exercise book headings and the driving question (lesson focus) Answers to the starter activity questions Lesson objectives An explanation of the topic Clear explanations of the content First task. Students use slides or CSNewbs to complete. All answers on separate teacher document. Task 2. Table provided in teacher resource pack to print. Further explanations of the content Further explanations of the content with diagrams. Further explanations of the content with diagrams. Task 3. Answers in the teacher document. Plenary to check the students' understanding of the lesson topics. < Free zip folder download of all resources for Eduqas GCSE topic 1.1 (The CPU) *Updated Jan 2021*

  • 2.2 - Boolean Algebra - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    2.2: Boolean Algebra Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Boolean algebra is used to simplify Boolean expressions so that they are easier to understand. ​ Because calculations can use dozens of logical operators, they are simplified in Boolean Algebra using symbols rather than words. Take your time and don't panic. In an exam, you might get a list of identities (rules) to use. One tip to solving boolean algebra is to imagine that A and B are real expressions . In the examples on this page, imagine: A represents the true statement 'the sky is blue' B represents the true statement 'grass is green' ​ 0 always means FALSE 1 always means TRUE Boolean Symbols ​ A = NOT A A . B = A AND B A + B = A OR B Boolean Identities are the rules that are used to simplify Boolean expressions. ​ Each identity (law) has an AND form and an OR form , depending on whether AND or OR is being used . Commutative Law AND form: OR form: This law just switches the order of the expressions . For example, 'sky is blue' AND 'grass is green' makes logical sense in either order. Idempotent Law = AND form: OR form: This law removes repetition . Complement Law NOT AND form: The sky cannot be blue and not blue at the same time, so it must be 0 (FALSE). OR form: The sky is blue or not blue must be 1 (TRUE) as it has to be one of these options. Identity Law AND form: 1 represents TRUE . Both statements are true so it can be simplified as just A . OR form: 0 represents FALSE . Because A is true, you can ignore the false statement and it can be simplified as just A . Annulment Law AND form: 0 represents FALSE . Even though A is true, a statement cannot be true and false at the same time, so it must be 0 (FALSE). OR form: 1 represents TRUE . Both statements are true so this can be simplified as just 1 (TRUE). Absorption Law AND form: OR form: Absorption law reduces a bracket into one value. If the first A is true then both values in the brackets are true but if the first A is false then both values are false. Therefore this equation relies entirely on A and can be simplified as just A . Association Law ( ) AND form: OR form: This law separates a bracketed expression that uses the same operator inside and outside the brackets by removing the brackets . Distribution Law ( ) = ( ) ( ) AND form: OR form: The value outside of the bracket (e.g. A) is multiplied by both values inside the brackets , forming two new brackets which are linked by the logical operator formerly within the bracket . ​ Notice that the logical operator role is switched , e.g. AND switches from within the brackets, to between the new brackets. A note about distribution law - The three values may not necessarily be three separate letters (e.g. A, B and C) as B or C could be NOT A for example. A NOT value is considered a new value , e.g. A and Ā are separate values. ​ Another note about distribution law - Exam questions may ask you to perform the distribution law (or any law) in reverse . For example, converting (A+B) . (A+C) into A + (B.C) Boolean Algebra Exam Question Some previous exam questions have listed helpful laws for you but others haven't, so you should know each individual law . In a previous exam, the candidates were given three general laws to help them . P, Q and R just represent three different values.​ P . 1 = P (Identity Law) P . Q + P . R = P. (Q + R) (Distribution Law) P + P = 1 (Complement Law) Using the rules above , candidates were asked to simplify the following expression : X = A . B + A . B The general laws have been give n to you for a reason. You need to look at the laws provided and see which one currently matches the expression in front of you . If you look closely in this example, the second law is very similar to the expression you are asked to simplify so you can use it to make the first simplification, just swap P for A, Q for B and R for NOT B: Using this law P . Q + P . R = P. (Q + R)​ X = A . B + A . B simplifies as: X = A . (B + B) Now you need to see which of the three provided laws can be used with the current expression . ​ The third law is very similar to the expression you now need to simplify further , just swap P for B and NOT P for NOT B: Using this law P + P = 1 X = A . (B + B) simplifies as: X = A . (1) And finally, there is one law left to use. The first law is very similar to the expression you now need to simplify further , just swap P for A. Using this law P . 1 = P X = A . (1) simplifies as: X = A You have now used all three laws and the expression is fully simplified . ​ Remember - Look at the laws that you have been given and see which law matches your expression . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.2 - Boolean Algebra: ​ 1. Draw the example equations and write a brief description of each of the eight Boolean laws : Commutative Law Idempotent Law Complement Law Identity Law Annulment Law Absorption Law Associate Law Distributive Law ​ 2. Below are three Boolean identities: ​ P . P = 0 (P + Q) . R = (P . R) + (Q . R) P + 0 = P ​ Using the three rules above , simplify the following expression: X = (A + B) . Ā​ This law is called ' Inverse Law ' in the Eduqas 2016 teacher guidance but ' Complement Law ' in the 2020 specification. This law is called ' Zero and One Law ' in the Eduqas 2016 teacher guidance but ' Annulment Law ' in the 2020 specification. This law is called ' Associate Law ' in the Eduqas 2016 teacher guidance but ' Association Law ' in the 2020 specification. This law is called ' Distributive Law ' in the Eduqas 2016 teacher guidance but ' Distribution Law ' in the 2020 specification. 2.1 - Logical Operators Theory Topics 3.1 - Network Characteristics

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.1 - Computer Hardware | CSNewbs

    1.1 - Computer Hardware Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Input Devices An input device allows data, such as text, images, video or sound, to be entered into a computer system. Common input devices: ​ Mouse Keyboard Scanner Controller Microphone Webcam Chip Reader OCR / OMR Scanner Barcode Scanner Graphics Tablet Sensors (e.g. light or temperature) Touch Screen Remote Control Biometric Scanner (e.g. fingerprint or iris) Concept Keyboard Output Devices There are many outputs created by a computer system, including printed documents, on-screen data and sound. Common output devices: ​ ​ Monitor Printer (e.g. inkjet or laser) Plotter Speakers Projector Alarm Light Headphones Touch Screen Braille Terminal Communication devices can be found in 1.5 . Biometric Devices A biometric device uses a human characteristic as part of its security mechanism, such as a fingerprint , iris (eye), face o r voice . ​ Organisations using biometrics must instruct each employee to first input their information to a database , by scanning their fingerprint for example. Whenever the scanner scans a finger it searches in its database to see if the fingerprint matches one that it already holds . Only authorised employees will have already scanned their fingerprints so if there is no match then access is not allowed . Advantages of biometric devices: Security is improved as biometrics can't be shared like passwords can. Even if a password is exposed the system can't be accessed without having the biometric too. Biometric scanners verify that a user is who they claim to be. Using a biometric device (e.g. fingerprint scanner) might be quicker and easier than entering a username and password. Disadvantages of biometric devices: Can be expensive to install and all users must take the time to initially set up by entering their biometric into the database so they will be recognised by the system. Unreliable in that it can be affected by the environment (e.g. dirty fingers can't be used with a fingerprint scanner or voice recognition may not work in a loud environment). Disabled users might not be able to provide the biometric required. Privacy concerns - users might not want their personal characteristics stored on a computer system. Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1 - Computer Hardware: ​ 1. Make a list of 5 input devices and 5 output devices . Challenge yourself to look up and include devices from this page you may not be familiar with. [10 ] ​ 2a. State 3 human features that may be recorded by a biometric device . [3 ] 2b. Describe how a biometric device works . [3 ] 2c. A school is considering installing biometric devices to allow only sixth form students to enter certain parts of the school. Describe 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages to the school of using biometrics in this way. [10 ] Topic List 1.2 - Computer Components

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 5.1 - Ethical Issues | CSNewbs

    5.1 - Ethical Issues Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What is ethics? Ethics refers to what is right and wrong . The following issues are often linked to or backed up by legislation. Whistle Blowing Definition: When a member of staff reveals that the organisation they work for are engaging in unlawful practices . This could include breaking privacy laws, threatening staff and environmental damage. ​ In some countries, like the UK, whistleblowers are protected by law. Whistleblowers are protected from being fired or not being considered for promotion as a result of their actions. ​ A famous whistleblower is Edward Snowden , who revealed in 2013 that many governments, including the USA and the UK, were spying on their civilians with widespread undocumented surveillance. Should Martin reveal that his company is dumping old computers into a lake or just stay quiet? Graham feels that, because of his disability, he is being ignored for a promotion that he deserves. Discrimination Definition: When an employee is treated unfairly because of a personal or physical characteristic over which they have no control . ​ The Equality Act (2010) ensures equal treatment for all people irrespective of: race sexuality gender disability marital status (and many more) Examples of discrimination include offensive talk, harassment, unequal pay and being ignored for promotion. Use of Information Definition: Laws such as GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation ) and specifically the Data Protection Act (2018) ensure that organisations must responsibly process personal data. Organisations have a legal obligation to keep their employee and customer personal data secure and out of reach from unauthorised viewers. Considerations should be made about how the information is ethically collected , stored and processed . DataDyne backs up customer information on cloud storage - what if this data is compromised ? As part of quality assurance, Selside Bank double check performance reviews before submission. Codes of Practice Definition: A set of rules which explains how people working in certain professions are required to behave . Organisations may have a code of practice for: ​ Confidentiality (rules on what data can and cannot be shared with others), Quality assurance (ensuring high quality is maintained for all products/services), Behaviour (setting out how employees are expected to behave at work and in communication with each other and customers), Equality and discrimination (being understanding and providing fair access to all employees). ​ Employees must agree to the codes of practice so they are clear on their expectations of what is and isn't acceptable at work. The organisation can then discipline employees that broke the codes of practice they formerly agreed to. Online Safety Definition: Often companies will provide an induction (training ) to new employees about the organisation’s code of practice for using the internet whilst at work . If an individual does not behave safely online or breaks the organisation's codes of practice (by gambling at work for example) then they may be punished (e.g. fined or fired). ​ Employees can ensure that they are safe online by using secure passwords that are regularly updated and preventing web browsers from remembering login details . Miriam changes her password each month to minimise the chance of hackers accessing her account. The CEO of Honey Media apologies in public after biased information led to a lawsuit and loss of reputation. Bias Definition: This is technically correct, but slanted , information that presents a one-sided view . For example, end-of year financial data that focuses on profits and ignores significant losses. ​ Poor quality information may lead to an organisation being misinformed and not sufficiently responding to their customers' needs - for example if a survey was only completed by a small number of people it could generate biased results. ​ As a result of poor quality information, organisations may suffer from damage to their reputation due to negative feedback and reviews from customers, possibly posted online. A lack of trust can occur if customers feel neglected because of decisions made using biased information of a poor quality, therefore reputational damage may lead to loss of customers . Q uesto's Q uestions 5.1 - Ethical Issues: ​ 1. Describe what whistleblowing is and give 3 examples . [4 ] ​ 2. Describe what discrimination is and give 4 examples . [5 ] ​ 3. Which law relates to the use of information ? [1 ] ​ 4a. Describe 2 things that may be included in an organisation's codes of practice . [4 ] 4b. Explain why employees must agree to their company's codes of practice [4 ]. ​ 5. Describe 2 things an employee should do to stay safe online . [2 ] ​ 6a. What is biased information ? [2 ] 6b. Describe 3 possible effects to a company if they use biased information . [6 ] 4.6 & 4.7 - Bodies & Certification 5.2 - Operational Issues Topic List

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