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  • 4.1 - UK Legislation | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    4.1 - UK Legislation Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Exam Board: OCR There are many types of legislation - laws that have been written into use - that concern data storage, protection and the use of information. In an exam, the year the law was introduced must be stated . In 2018 the European Union introduced GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation ) to protect the privacy of data for people in the EU. The UK matched this by updating the Data Protection Act introduced in 1998 to become the Data Protection Act (2018) . ​ This act protects the data of individuals that is stored on computers and processed by organisations. ​ How the Data Protection Act works: ​ Each person who has their data stored is known as a data subject . An employee within an organisation must be appointed as a data controller and it is they who are responsible for registering with the Information Commissioner . The Information Commissioner is the person in the UK who is responsible for managing several laws , most significantly the Data Protection Act. When registering with the Information Commissioner, the organisation's data controller must be clear on exactly: What information they are collecting, Why it is being collected, What the data will be used for . ​ The six principles of the Data Protection Act (2018) state: 1. Data must be collected lawfully and processed fairly. 2. Collected data must only be used for the reasons specified. 3. Data must be relevant and not excessive. 4. Data must be accurate and up-to-date. 5. Data must not be stored for longer than necessary, 6. Data must be stored and processed securely. Actions organisations must take to stick to the Data Protection Act (2018): ​ The company must appoint and register a member of staff to act as the organisation's data controller . The data controller is responsible for communicating with the Information Commissioner and ensuring the principles of the DPA are not broken . There must be strong security measures in practice to protect data from being accessed or transferred without authorisation . This could be in the form of physical or digital protection methods enforced by the company. Staff should be trained so that they are clearly aware of their responsibilities and each principle is adhered to. For example, they should know that data can only be used for the reasons specified when it is collected and should not be passed to others without the permission of the data subject. Data subjects should be given the opportunity to alter their data and make changes if it is incorrect . Data should be deleted when it is no longer needed , so organisations should periodically assess both the accuracy and relevance of storing each data subject's information. Data subjects have the right to make a Subject Access Request (SAR ) and receive a copy of the data which is stored about them. Companies must abide by this request by verifying the user's identify and presenting the data to them securely . ​ Rights of data subjects: ​ Under the Data Protection Act, individuals have a right of access to any information that is stored about them by public bodies . ​ If an individual wishes to access their data they must submit a Subject Access Request (SAR ) which results in the following steps: ​ The organisation's data controller must be written to and told exactly what information is required to access. An administrative fee should be paid to the organisation (but only if the request requires excessive efforts to fulfil ). The organisation must provide the requested information within 40 days . The individual must verify their identity using appropriate ID because only the data subject can request their data . Computer Misuse Act (1990) This act was introduced as computers became cheaper and more common at home and work . The act attempts to stop and punish those who use computers inappropriately . Breaking any of the three principles could result in fines and a jail sentence but only if it can be proved it was done on purpose and not by accident. ​ The Computer Misuse Act (1990 ) includes three main principles :​ 1. No unauthorised access to data. ​ Example: Hacking a computer system. 2. No unauthorised access to data that could be used for further illegal activities. ​ Example: Accessing personal data to use as blackmail or identity theft. 3. No unauthorised modification of data. ​ ​ Example: Spreading a virus to change data. Data Protection Act (2018) / GDPR Freedom of Information Act (2000) This act allows people to request public authorities to release information . Public authorities include local councils , government departments , universities and hospitals . ​ A freedom of information request must be formally submitted in a letter or email and a reply from the organisation is required within twenty days of receiving the request. ​ A simple freedom of information request might be the average response times of the local ambulance service in the past year. Certain requests will not be accepted , such as if processing the request would be too expensive or if it involves sensitive information protected by the Data Protection Act (2018 ). Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) This act (often shortened to RIPA ) was introduced in response to the increase in both criminal and terrorist activities on the internet, it is used to monitor and access online communication of suspected criminals . If criminal activity is suspected by an individual then this act grants the following powers : ​ Internet Service Providers (ISPs) must provide access to the suspect's online communication , such as emails or social media. Locked or encrypted data may be accessed such as online messages. ISPs could install surveillance equipment or software to track the suspect's online activity . Surveillance may take place to physically track the suspect , e.g. in private vans or by undercover officers in public spaces. Access must be granted to personal information . ​ This act became controversial as its use widened and local councils were using it for minor offences - a Scottish council used the act to monitor dog barking and a council in Cumbria gathered video evidence about who was feeding pigeons . The act has since been changed to only allow the surveillance of crime suspects . Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) This act makes it a criminal offence to copy work that is not your own without the permission of the creator or the copyright holder. This can refer to text, images, music, videos or software. Owning the copyright of an image might not prevent others from copying and using it but this act means that the owner can bring legal proceedings in court to those who have stolen their work . ​ Creators of copyrighted work can take ownership of their work and control how it is used . Others must ask for permission to use the work otherwise the copyright holder can ask for it to be removed or demand a fee for its use . ​ This act specifically prohibits the following actions: Making copies of copyrighted material to sell to others . Importing and downloading illegally copied material (except for personal use). Distributing enough copyrighted material to have a noticeable effect on the copyright holder . Possessing equipment used to copy copyrighted material , as part of a business. Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) Codes of Practice Protection of Freedoms Act (2012) There are seven sections to this act, revolving around the protection of personal data . It was introduced because there was little legislation about biometric data , and to update older laws . IT-related sections are summarised below: ​ Part 1 - States how biometric data (e.g. fingerprints and DNA) is stored, handled and collected. For example, parents must give consent before their child gives biometric data to a school. Also, biometric data for suspects of minor offences is deleted after the case is closed. ​ Part 2 - Creates new regulation for CCTV and ANPR (automatic number plate recognition) use. ​ Part 5 - The Disclosure & Barring Service (DBS) was created to run background checks on anyone wanting to work with children or vulnerable people. ​ Part 6 - Extends the Freedom of Information Act (2000) allowing for wider requests to be made . The information commissioner is the senior government official in charge of the country's freedom of information requests and the protection of personal data . The Information Commissioner's Office describes itself as "The UK’s independent authority set up to uphold information rights in the public interest, promoting openness by public bodies and data privacy for individuals". The ICO publishes codes of practices about various data protection and privacy topics , usually related to explaining the Data Protection Act . For example, the ICO has a code of practice regarding how organisations should share data and another code of practice about the use of CCTV . The ICO offers help and support to both individuals (such as giving access to students to their exam results) and organisations (such as support with legal electronic marketing). Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (2003) This law (which was updated in 2011 ) regulates how organisations can communicate with individuals . Companies must stick to the following rules: ​ It is an offence to directly contact an individual unless they have specifically opted-in to receive communication. This is commonly managed by using tick boxes on online stores where you must opt-in to receiving promotional material. Companies must clearly state who they are when contacting customers, such as displaying the phone number when calling - and not 'hiding' the number. Organisations must explain how cookies are used on their website . Companies must only contact customers through communication channels that the customer has previously permitted . This can be done with tick boxes when signing up. Customers can select or de-select methods such as email , phone calls and text messages . ​ The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) is responsible for this regulation and can fine companies that commit unsolicited communication up to £500,000. It is the customer who benefits and is protected by this regulation. Equality Act (2010) The government states that "The Equality Act legally protects people from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society." ​ Discrimination because of protected characteristics such as gender , race , religion , age and disability are specifically punishable by legal action. The aim of the act is to end discrimination in the workplace and open up fair opportunities for every employee regardless of behavioural or physical characteristics that are outside of their control . ​ Within a company, the Equality Act protects staff by stating protected characteristics should not be a factor in an employee's promotion or change of role. Information must be presented in a format accessible to all staff . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1 - UK Legislation: ​ 1. Create a flashcard or PowerPoint slide for each legislation above. Explain the purpose of the legislation , its main principles and whom it affects . [5 each ] 3.6 - Information Systems Topic List 4.2 - Global Legislation

  • 6.1a - Impacts of Technology - OCR GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    6.1a: Impacts of Technology Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2020 What are the issues created by technology? As the use of computers and technological devices continues to rise every year, this increase brings with it a range of different types of issues . Categories of issues described on this page include: ​ Cultural issues Environmental issues Ethical issues Legal & Privacy issues Cultural Issues Culture relates to society and how different parts of the world vary in terms of computer and internet usage . The Digital Divide This term relates to the gap between those people who have access to modern digital technology (such as computers and the internet) and those who have limited access . 'Limited access' could be devices at home or shared devices or having lower-performance (cheaper) computers and low-speed internet connections. ​ The digital divide can be seen in different ways , such as: People in cities vs. People in rural areas . Younger people vs. Elderly people. Developed countries vs. Developing countries. The digital divide is an important ethical issue because digital technologies have led to numerous international benefits including boosted growth , improved product delivery , enhanced communication and increased opportunities . However, this impact is uneven and these positive impacts are mostly occurring in technologically-advanced regions such as North America , Western Europe and Japan . Regions like some nations in Africa and Central Asia have limited digital infrastructure and government instability , leading to poor internet speeds , high costs and limited resources . ​ Discussion Points: What do you think can be done to bridge the digital divide? Whose job is it to bridge the gap? Who will pay for the technology? Changes to Work The internet , the development of new technologies such as cloud storage and increased video communication have transformed the way that many businesses operate across the world. Staff may be able to work from home or access documents collaboratively outside of the traditional workplace, such as cafes or on public transport. ​ Some jobs have moved abroad to save costs, such as help centres for online issues. Tasks can be outsourced to freelancers in other countries where people are content to be paid less for their time and services. For example, some companies will hire temporary web developers from countries such as India to work for them for a lower salary than local workers. ​ Another change to work that technology has brought is the loss of jobs , especially low-skilled jobs such as factory workers that have seen their roles replaced by technology and automation . However, technology has also created millions of new jobs , including installing and maintaining the machines that replace other roles. Environmental Issues Environmental issues concern the natural world and the negative effects of producing , using and discarding computer systems and devices. Energy and Material Consumption In the past 30 years, the number of technological devices has increased astronomically and thousands of new devices are manufactured each day . These devices need to be assembled using a range of materials , including plastics , metals and some rarer elements and need a considerable amount of electrical power to run. Certain systems like web servers and data centres must be powered on all day , every day, which uses a large amount of energy . Pollution and Waste Generating the electricity to power computers creates pollution - an average PC could require up to 50% more energy per year than a fridge. Computers are difficult to recycle and discarded components can lead to land, water and air pollution due to harmful materials , such as lead and mercury , leaking into the environment. ​ Smartphone trends are also negative for the environment as new devices are released yearly , with minor upgrades that people buy to appear fashionable and up-to-date. To lessen the environmental impact, people should reuse and recycle their devices. Ethical Issues Ethics relates to what is considered right or wrong . Often this is subjective - people may have differing opinions on the issue. Drones Uses of drones: Filming and photography for television, movies and special events. Monitoring pollution levels in the atmosphere. Tracking and monitoring wildlife , such as rhino populations in Africa. Disaster zone response , such as searching for survivors following an earthquake. Delivery companies are developing drones to quickly deliver goods across cities. Drones are used by the military to target sites in other countries, such as American soldiers deploying surveillance drones in Syria. ​ Discussion Points: Should you need a licence to buy and fly a drone? Should drones be used to monitor the public? Like flying CCTV? Should drones be used to deliver items? Like Amazon packages? If a drone hits a plane and it crashes, what should the punishment be? A drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV ) that is remotely operated and can be used for a wide range of purposes. Self-Driving Cars Self-driving cars (also known as autonomous vehicles ) are currently in the development and testing stage with companies like Tesla and Amazon. Benefits of self-driving cars include: In theory, driving will be safer because cars are less likely to make mistakes that humans do and they can’t become distracted or tired . Self-driving cars should be more fuel-efficient because they take the most direct route to destinations and do not get lost. ‘Drivers’ in the car can perform other tasks instead of driving, such as work or planning. Autonomous vehicles could include trucks and vans to automate the delivery and freight industries . Trucks could drive overnight to deliver goods whereas currently, human drivers must take breaks every few hours. Drawbacks of self-driving cars include: Cars could still crash as code and software processes may fail. The technology is still in development and will be very expensive for the first few years when self-driving cars are available to purchase. Jobs may be lost such as delivery and truck drivers whose vehicles are equipped with self-driving technology. Other industries like motorway services and hotels may also be affected. ​ Discussion Points: Would you trust a car to drive itself? Who is to blame if a self-driving car crashes? The car maker? The people in the car? The software writers? What should happen to the people whose jobs are taken by self-driving vehicles? Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence (AI ) is the act of computers replacing humans to analyse data and make decisions . In recent years AI has become more common in the home and on devices like smartphones; assistants such as Siri and Alexa are prime examples of modern home AI. The weather today is cloudy. Benefits of AI include: Processes are sped up as computers can analyse large amounts of data much quicker than a human. AI can be used when a human is unavailable , such as using a symptom checker on the internet for a minor illness rather than booking and waiting for a doctor. Repetitive or time-consuming tasks can instead be completed by a computer , such as searching and sorting scientific data. Drawbacks of AI include: AI can store and process a lot of personal data , especially personal assistants like Alexa which are always listening for ‘wake words’. This data can be viewed by the company that develops it and could be hacked by attackers. AI is programmed by humans and mistakes in code could have disastrous consequences if the AI is used to make important decisions , such as military deployment. ​ Discussion Points: If a robot harms a human who is to blame? The robot? The programmer? The manufacturer? Us? Would you trust a walking, talking robot assistant in your home? Should AI make decisions for us? Legal & Privacy Issues Legal and privacy issues regard laws that have been introduced by the UK government to protect data, systems and networks from unauthorised access . See 11.2 for explanations about important computing legislation in the UK. Loss of Privacy & Hacking There has been a lot of criticism in the last few years about how internet companies and governments are using personal data to invade privacy and track civilians . Facebook was involved in a scandal with using personal data for reasons that were not the original intention. In reverse, WhatsApp and Apple have been criticised for encrypting messages sent by terrorists that police have been unable to track and read. Every week a new company seems to announce that its data has been hacked . Attackers are constantly using botnets and infected systems to crack poorly secured databases and attempting to phish individuals for usernames and passwords. In the past few years, major hacking breaches include Sony, Yahoo and TalkTalk. ​ Discussion Points: Should the UK government be able to see the websites you have visited in the last year? What should happen if a major company is hacked and bank details are stolen? Should they be fined? Pay customers? Prison? Should WhatsApp allow authorities to access encrypted messages? What if they know a terrorist is using it to communicate? Should the UK debate privacy laws before they go into place? Online Crime Unlawfully obtaining personal information and using it for identity theft or fraud . Harassment and threatening others on social media or private messages; blackmail . Cyber attacks are more common - see 3.8 for information about DOS attacks , IP spoofing , SQL injection and more. Sharing copyrighted material such as television programmes, music and video games. Distributing prohibited material such as drugs or weapons on the dark web. ​ See 11.2 for explanations about different laws that have been created to tackle online crime . The increased popularity of the internet and the rising number of users has led to a wave of online crime , taking many different forms, including:​ Q uesto's Q uestions 6.1a - Impacts of Technology: ​ Cultural Impacts 1a. What is the digital divide ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe 2 examples of how the digital divide can be seen . [ 2 ] ​ 2. Describe in detail 3 ways that technology has changed the way people work . [9 ] ​ Environmental Impacts 1. Describe the different ways that the increasing use of technology negatively impacts the environment . [ 5 ] ​ Ethical Impacts 1a. What is a drone ? [1 ] 1b. Make a list of all of the positive impacts and the negative impacts of using drones . You should have at least 3 on each side. [ 6 ] ​ 2. Describe 2 benefits of using self-driving cars and 2 negative consequences . [4 ] ​ 3. Describe how artificial intelligence can be used for good . [ 2 ] ​ Legal & Privacy Impacts 1. A hack on a bank has occurred. Describe what you think the impacts would be on the following groups of people: a. The customers . b. The bank managers . c. The general public . [ 6 ] ​ 2. Describe 4 different types of online crime . [ 8 ] 5.2 - Utility Software Theory Topics 6.1b - Legislation

  • CSN+ Preview | CSNewbs

    About CSNewbs Plus (CSN+) CSN+ is a premium collection of resources made for teachers that follows the Computer Science specifications covered on the website . ​ Currently, these resources are in development , with the Eduqas GCSE resource pack arriving first, based on the Eduqas GCSE Computer Science 2020 specification . < Free zip folder download of all resources for Eduqas GCSE topic 1.1 (The CPU) *Updated Jan 2021* ​ Resources included for each topic: Lesson Slides Starter activity (to print) Task resources (e.g. diagrams or worksheets to print) Task answers What is included in the CSNewbs+ GCSE collection? 39 presentation slides 39 starters 39 task answer documents 19 revision activity pages 7 topic tests & answers ​ ​ See below for more details: + Complete presentation slides for each of the 39 theory topics in the Eduqas GCSE 2020 specification . ​ PowerPoint and Google Slides compatible. Activity resources to print . Including diagrams , tables and worksheets for lesson tasks . All answers included for teachers to use. Starter questions that recap the previous topic. For teachers to print before the lesson. All answers included in the lesson slides. 39 starters . Comprehensive answers for all lesson tasks . 39 task answer documents containing answers for over 100 lesson tasks for teachers to use . Revision templates for students to complete, to print on A3 paper . 19 pages and 7 revision lesson slides . Exercise book headings and the driving question (lesson focus) 7 end-of-topic tests with brand new questions . All answers included for teachers. What is included on the presentation slides? The following breakdown shows the presentation slides for 1.1 (The CPU): A title slide The content covered from the Eduqas GCSE specification Exercise book headings and the driving question (lesson focus) Answers to the starter activity questions Lesson objectives An explanation of the topic Clear explanations of the content First task. Students use slides or CSNewbs to complete. All answers on separate teacher document. Task 2. Table provided in teacher resource pack to print. Further explanations of the content Further explanations of the content with diagrams. Further explanations of the content with diagrams. Task 3. Answers in the teacher document. Plenary to check the students' understanding of the lesson topics. < Free zip folder download of all resources for Eduqas GCSE topic 1.1 (The CPU) *Updated Jan 2021*

  • 3.5 - Protocols - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.5: Protocols Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a protocol? A protocol is a set of rules that allow devices on a network to communicate with each other . TCP / IP is actually two separate protocols that combine together. TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) ​​TCP is a protocol that allows packets to be sent and received between computer systems. It breaks the data into packets and reassembles them back into the original data at the destination. IP is a protocol in charge of routing and addressing data packets . This ensures data packets are sent across networks to the correct destination . It is also an addressing system - every device on a network is given a unique IP address so data packets can be sent to the correct computer system. HTTP is used to transfer web pages over the Internet so that users can view them in a web browser . All URLs start with either HTTP or HTTPS (e.g. HTTPS is a more secure version of HTTP that works with another protocol called SSL ( Secure Sockets Layer ) to transfer encrypted data . You should see a padlock symbol in the URL bar if your connection to that website is secure. HTTP/HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Ethernet is a protocol for wired connections . Ethernet is used at both the data link and physical layers to describe how network devices can format data packets for transmission. WiFi is the main standard for wireless connections . WiFi is actually a brand name that uses a protocol called IEEE 802.11 . Another wireless standard is Bluetooth , for short-range data transfer. Connection Protocols Transfer Protocols FTP ( File Transfer Protocol ) is used to transfer files across a network. It is commonly used to upload or download files to/from a web server . SMTP ( Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ) is a protocol used to send emails to a mail server and between mail servers . Q uesto's Q uestions 3.5 - Protocols: 1. Describe each of the following protocols . It might be helpful to also draw an icon or small diagram for each one: a. TCP [ 2 ] b. IP [ 2 ] c. HTTP & HTTPS [ 3 ] d. WiFi (802.11) [ 1 ] e. Ethernet [ 2 ] f. FTP [ 2 ] g. SMTP [ 2 ] ​ 2. State which protocol would be used in the following scenarios : a. Transferring a music file to a friend over the internet. [ 1 ] b. Sending an email to a family member in America. [ 1 ] c. Using a wireless connection to play a mobile game. [ 1 ] d. Using a webpage to enter a password securely. [ 1 ] e. Watching a video on YouTube. [1 ] 3.4 Network Hardware & Routing Theory Topics 3.6 - 7 Layer OSI Model

  • 1.5 - Performance - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.5: Performance Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + The performance of a computer system is affected by three main factors: Cache Memory: Size & Levels What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . What are the 3 levels of cache memory? Level 1 cache is the smallest level but it is also the fastest . Level 2 cache is larger than level 1 but slightly slower. Level 3 cache is located outside of the CPU core which makes it slower than the first two levels but it is much larger . How does cache memory work? ​ When the CPU searches for data , it looks first in level 1 cache, then level 2 and then level 3 . If the data has been found , this is called a 'cache hit '. If the data is not found then the CPU searches in RAM instead which takes more time - this is called a 'cache miss '. How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is closer to the CPU than RAM , meaning that it can provide data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate . ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because repeatedly used instructions can be stored and accessed faster . ​ Larger level 1 and level 2 cache sizes will improve a computer's performance as data can be accessed extremely quickly . What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is costly, so most computers only have a small amount . ​ Multiple cache misses will result in data latency (delay) as information is accessed from RAM which is further away from the CPU. Clock Speed What is clock speed? Clock speed is the measure of how quickly a CPU can process instructions . ​ Clock speed is measured in Gigahertz (GHz) . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of 3.5 GHz . This means it can perform 3.5 billion cycles a second . How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in better performance because more instructions can be processed each second . How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A core is a complete set of CPU components (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to perform its own FDE cycle . ​ A multi-core CPU has more than one set of components within the same CPU. How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can execute one instruction at a time , a dual-core processor can execute two instructions, and a quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously . ​ Therefore, a computer with more cores will have a higher performance because it can process more instructions at once . What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If one core is waiting for another core to finish processing, performance may not increase at all. ​ Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores , so it will not run any quicker on a multi-core computer. Q uesto's Q uestions 1.5 - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels 1a. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe the three levels of cache memory . [ 3 ] 1c. Describe what is meant by a ' cache hit ' and a ' cache miss '. [ 2 ] 1d. Describe two ways that more c ache memory will mean performance is higher . [ 4 ] 1e. Explain why most computers only have a small amount of cache memory. [ 1 ] Clock Speed 2a. What is clock speed ? What is it measured in? [ 2 ] 2b. Explain how a higher clock speed improves performance . [ 2 ] 2c. Explain the terms 'overclocking ' and 'underclocking ' and explain the effects of both on the performance of a computer. [ 4 ] ​ Number of Cores 3a. What is a core ? [ 2 ] 3b. Explain why a quad-core processor should have a higher performance than a dual-core processor . [ 3 ] 3c. Explain two reasons why having more cores doesn't necessarily mean the performance will be better . [ 2 ] 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.6 - Additional Hardware Theory Topics

  • 10.2 - Stages of Compilation - Eduqas (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    10.2: Stages of Compilation Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + A compiler translates source code (high-level language written by a programmer) into machine code in five separate stages : 1. Lexical Analysis The term 'lexical' refers to words and phrases . Source code needs to be broken down into tokens that can later be analysed. ​ In lexical analysis: ​ Spaces and comments are removed from the code. Identifiers , keywords and operators are replaced by tokens . A token is similar to a variable with a name and a value . A symbol table is created. T his table stores the addresses of all variables , labels and subroutines used in the program. ​ 2. Syntax Analysis The term 'syntax' refers to sentence structure . ​ In syntax analysis: The tokens created in the first stage are checked to see if they follow the syntax (spelling and grammar ) rules of the programming language. This process is called ' parsing ' . During parsing, if a syntax error is found then an error message is displayed and compilation stops . 3. Semantic Analysis The term 'semantic' refers to logic . Variables are checked in this stage to ensure they are used correctly: ​ Variable checks ensure they are correctly declared and use a valid data type (for example integers are not assigned to decimal values). Operation checks ensure they are correct for the data type used ( for example dividing a number must result in an real value ). 4. Code Generation The machine code (data in a binary format ) is generated . 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0101 0110 5. Code Optimisation The code is optimised so it is fast , efficient and uses as little of the computer's resources as possible. Q uesto's Q uestions 10.2 - Stages of Compilation: ​ 1 a. List the 6 stages of compilation in order . [6 ] 1b. Create a poster or flowchart describing each of the 6 stages of compilation : 1. Lexical Analysis 2. Symbol Table Creation 3. Syntax Analysis 4. Semantic Analysis 5. Code Generation 6. Code Optimisation [ 10 total ] 10.1 - Translators Theory Topics 10.3 - Programming Errors

  • CTech 2.4 - Information Management | CSNewbs

    2.4 - Information Management Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Management Information System (MIS) An MIS is used to collect, store, analyse and present data for an organisation. The system processes a large amount of data and organises it (such as in databases) so that it can be used for decision making and general data analysis . An efficient MIS can be used to display the financial status of an organisation, highlight areas of improvement and generate sales forecasts based on current data. Specifically, a bank could use an MIS for: Looking at the number of customers that visit each branch. Forecasting takings based on historical data. Profiling customers. Identifying customers who haven’t saved recently to target them for email. Benefits of an MIS: ​ Integrated system: ​ A Management Information System shares a large amount of data from multiple departments within an organisation to produce accurate reports. For example, financial data can be used to generate accurate pay slips. Decision Making: An MIS can be used to inform an organisation's decision making by highlighting areas that need improvement within the company. Powerful analysis: ​An MIS will use large data sets to provide accurate data analysis that can be used in many different ways by an organisation. Trends and patterns can be identified easily. Backup capabilities: ​ Data can be stored centrally and backed up easily if a disaster occurs. Limitations of an MIS: ​ Cost and installation: ​ An MIS is an expensive tool that needs to be professionally set up and requires technical knowledge to maintain. Requires accurate data: ​ If any data is incorrect or out of date then the analysis will consequently be inaccurate . Potentially disastrous decisions could be made as a result of incorrect data. Training: Employees will need to be trained to use the software accurately for maximum efficiency. Managing Information Data Collection Information can be collected in different ways e.g. paper forms, surveys, stock taking and data capture forms in databases. Example: A tennis club can create a form on their website that allows users to apply for membership and fill in key data such as their name, address and telephone number. Storage Collected data must be stored in a secure and easily-retrievable medium . This could be paper, magnetic, optical and cloud storage. Data is most conveniently stored in a database so that information can be added, removed or updated when necessary. Data must be stored securely to ensure it is protected against loss, accidental or via hacking / corruption. Sensitive data should be encrypted so that others cannot view / alter it without authorised access. Information should also be backed up in case the data is lost. ​ Example: The tennis club can store data in a database using cloud storage as soon as a new member enters their information. Using cloud storage allows the tennis club to access that information from multiple access points and they will only pay for the amount of storage that they need and use. Retrieval Using a database to store information allows users to easily access data so that it can be updated or removed. Searches and queries can be easily performed on all tables in a database to show specific values using certain criteria. ​ Example: The tennis club can submit a query in their member database to display all members whose membership will expire in the next month. They can then use that information to email a reminder to those members. Manipulating & Processing After collection and storage, data must be processed so that it is ready for the final stage: analysis. Data can be exported to other software , such as from a database and into a spreadsheet so that it can be manipulated , sorted and visualised . Graphs and charts can be created on data in a spreadsheet so that patterns and trends are easier to identify . ​ Example: Member information in the tennis club can be exported to spreadsheet software that then allows for graph / chart creation using specific values, such as membership expiry date or membership type. Analysis To analyse the data is to see what can be learned from it, so important decisions can be made. Example: Analysing the charts made in the processing stage will allow the tennis club to identify key patterns. For example, they could see when most members sign up during the year and where the members travel in from. Using these patterns the club can then inform future practice. For example, if not many members sign up in August, a sale on membership can be created at this time to entice new members. Or if most members travel in from a certain area of town a bus system might be set up to help those members travel in more often. Q uesto's Q uestions 2.4 - Information Management: ​ 1a. What is the purpose of an MIS ? [2 ] 1b. Describe 3 ways a bank could use an MIS . [3 ] 1c. Describe the benefits and limitations of an MIS . [10 ] ​ 2. A charity for endangered birds (Bird Rescue UK) is creating a survey to send to scientists to find out which birds need protection status and are endangered in the UK. Describe how Bird Rescue UK can use each stage of data management : ​ Data Collection​ Storage Retrieval Manipulation & Processing Analysis [3 each ] 2.3 - Quality of Information 3.1 - Data vs. Information Topic List

  • 5.2 - Integrated Development Environment - OCR GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2020 5.2: Integrated Development Environment An IDE (Integrated Development Environment ) provides programmers with the following facilities (tools ) to help create programs : Editor The editor is software that allows a programmer to enter and edit source code . ​ Editor features may include: ​ Automatic formatting (e.g. automatic indentation). Automatic line numbering (this helps to identify exactly where an error has occurred). Automatic colour coding (e.g. Python turns loop commands orange and print commands purple). Statement completion (e.g. offering to auto-complete a command as the user is typing.) Error Diagnostics & Debugger Break point The programmer selects a specific line and the program displays the variable value at that point . The code can then be executed one line at a time to find exactly where the error occurs. This process is called single-stepping . Variable Watch / Watch Window cost Displays the current value of a selected variable . ​ A variable can be watched line-by-line to see how the value changes . Trace Logs the values of variables and outputs of the program a s the code is executed line by line . Both tools are used to display information about an error when it occurs, such as the line it occurred on and the error type (e.g. syntax). These tools may also suggest solutions to help the programmer to find and fix the error. Compilers & Interpreters Both tools convert the source code written by a programmer into machine code to be executed by the CPU. A compiler converts the entire source code into executable machine code at once . After compilation, the program can be run again without having to recompile each time. ​ An interpreter converts source code into machine code line by line . An interpreter must reinterpret the code each time the program is required to run . See 5.1 for both types of translators. A runtime environment allows a program to run on a computer system. It checks for runtime errors and allows users to test the program . ​ A runtime error occurs as the program is being executed , such as dividing a number by zero . ​ A commonly used example is the Java Runtime Environment . This allows programmers to design a program on one platform ( using the programming language Java ) which allows the finished program to then be run on many others systems . ​ A runtime environment enables the tools above such as a trace and breakpoint to be used. Run Time Environment Q uesto's Q uestions 5.2 - Integrated Development Environment: ​ 1. Describe the purpose of each type of IDE tool : a. Editor b. Interpreter c. Compiler d. Error Diagnostics / Debugger e. Break point f. Variable Watch / Watch Window g. Trace h. Runtime Environment [ 2 each ] 5.1 - Languages & Translators Theory Topics

  • CTech 4.4 - Ready For Work | CSNewbs

    4.4 - Ready for Work Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Successful employees always demonstrate that they are ready to work hard for their organisation by presenting themselves in a professional manner in line with the company's policies. Dress Code Employees must follow the dress code policy of an organisation at all times . For some businesses this may be very formal such as a suit and tie for men and a smart dress or trousers for women. Other organisations enforce a smart-casual dress code where expectations for dress are not as strict but obscene attire is still not permitted. Different job roles within a company may also have different expected standards of dress , for example a manager may require a tie and a technician may not. Presentation Employees should have good personal hygiene so that they can comfortably communicate with other staff members and customers. Good personal hygiene demonstrates respect for the organisation, other employees and yourself. Wearing clean clothes and avoiding bad odour help to give a professional impression . Attitude Maintaining a positive attitude can help you to be noticed and liked by peers and management. Having an 'I can do it' attitude, even during difficult times, will make you a hugely important team member of an organisation. Employees should be able to adapt and respond to on-going situations, be flexible and listen to suggestions made by others. Q uesto's Q uestions 4.4 - Ready for Work: ​ 1. What is meant by a dress code ? Explain why it is important for employees of an organisation to follow the company's dress code policy . [2 ] ​ 2. Why is personal presentation so important in an organisation? [2 ] 3. A games company has had its latest game flop and nobody seems to be buying it. What should the attitude of the company manager be during this time? [3 ] ​ 4. Explain why two workers in the same company may have different expected standards of dress . [1 ] ​ 5. Identify and describe three ways that IT employees can demonstrate that they are ready for work . You should refer to each of the 3 subsections (dress code, presentation and attitude). [6 ] 4.3 - Personal Attributes Topic List 4.5 - Job Roles

  • 5.2 - Utility Software - OCR GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    5.2: Utility Software What is utility software? Utility software are dedicated programs used for the maintenance and organisation of a computer system. ​ Anti-malware (such as an anti-virus or anti-spyware ), firewall and encryption software are examples of utilities and have been explained in section 4.2 . ​ Data Compression is another utility that has been explained in section 2.5 . ​ Other utility software include backup software , disk checkers , disk formatters and auto-updaters . Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2020 Defragmentation What is fragmentation and how does it happen? Over time files stored on a hard disk drive may become fragmented - this is when the file is split into parts that are saved in different storage locations . Fragmentation occurs when there is limited contiguous space in which to store a file . This may happen as data is stored and then later deleted on the hard drive . New files are created which may be bigger than the spaces left by the deleted files . The new files are then split up . Fragmentation increases access time - files that are fragmented take longer to load and read because of the distance between the fragments of the file. How does defragmentation work? Empty spaces are collected together on the hard disk drive and file fragments are moved to be stored together. ​ This means that fewer disc accesses are needed (requiring less physical movement ) as file fragments can be read consecutively . What are the effects of defragmentation? A defragmented file takes less time to read and access because the data is stored contiguously . The read/write head of the hard drive does not need to move as far to read the next piece of data because it is in the adjacent memory location , saving time . It also quicker to save new files because there is more free space together so it does not need to split the file and can store the data contiguously . Q uesto's Q uestions 5.2 - Utility Software: ​ 1. Explain what fragmentation is and how a file may become fragmented . [ 3 ] 2. Describe the process of defragmentation . [ 3 ] 3. Explain the effects of defragmenting a hard disk drive. [ 3 ] 5.1 - Operating Systems Theory Topics 6.1a - Impacts of Technology

  • HTML Guide 8 - Videos | CSNewbs

    8. Videos HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: Embedding a video from YouTube into your web page is very easy. YouTube Videos Find an appropriate video on YouTube and click the Share button underneath the video. Next, click the Embed option. Embed a video onto your web page. Copy the HTML code that is displayed on your screen and paste it directly into your HTML document. Next you can customise your web page with a background colour and different font styles. 7. Head Tags HTML Guide 9. Colours & Fonts

  • 3.3a - Network Characteristics | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 3.3a - Network Characteristics Specification: A-Level 2015 What is a network? A network is more than one computer system connected together allowing for communication and sharing of resources . Networks can be split into different types , usually categorised by their geographical distance apart and the area that they serve. Local Area Network A local area network (LAN ) has computer systems situated geographically close together , usually within the same building or small site , like a school or office . ​ The network infrastructure of a LAN (such as servers and routers) is usually owned and managed by the network owner . Wide Area Network A wide area network (WAN ) has computer systems situated geographically distant to each other, possibly across a country or even across the world . WANs often use third party communication channels , such as connections by internet services providers like BT or Virgin Media. Other network types do exist, such as a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN ) for computer systems connected across a town or city or a Personal Area Network (PAN ) for devices connected and used by an individual . Advantages and Disadvantages of using a Network There are many benefits but also some drawbacks to using a network compared to having an unconnected ('standalone' ) computer: Advantages of Networks Easily share files , software and hardware between computers. Disadvantages of Networks There is an initial cost because network devices like routers are required . Larger companies will need to buy and maintain a server . Log in from any connected computer and access your data and files. A network manager / administrator might need to be employed to maintain the network . An administrator can monitor network activity and control security settings. Data from computers on the network can be automatically backed up on central storage. Security breaches are more likely and malware , such as worms, can spread quickly across the network. If the web server fails , all connected computers won't be able to access files or log on . Client-Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks Client-Server Network Clients make requests to a server , the server manages that request and responds. For example, if the user (client) makes a request to access to a web server. ​ Large services like Amazon and Google will need very powerful servers to handle millions of requests a second. ​ The client is completely dependent on the server to provide and manage the information. The server controls network security , backups and can be upgraded to manage higher demand. Advantages: The network can be controlled centrally from the server to easily backup data and update software . Hardware, software and resources can be shared across the network, such as printers, applications and data files . The network allows for improved scalability , meaning more clients can be easily added to the central server . Disadvantages: Large amounts of traffic congestion will cause the network to slow down . If a fault occurs with the server then the whole network will fail . IT technicians may be required to manage and maintain the network . Malware , such as viruses, can spread quickly across the network. Client-Side & Server-Side Processing Processing data when using a web application can be performed by the client ( client-side ) or by sending/receiving data with the server ( server-side ). ​ Client-Side Server-Side Client-side processing is more secure as no data is being sent along the network to the server, and thus can’t be intercepted . Web pages use JavaScript to quickly validate data and provide interactivity without having to prompt unnecessary interaction with the server . Server-side processing is reserved for more important tasks such as processing user input , interacting with databases and structuring web applications . It is also used to further validate data as client-side processing can be modified or even disabled on the browser so further checks are used to prevent malicious code , such as an SQL injection from being used. Peer-to-Peer Network For peer-to-peer networks , data is shared directly between systems without requiring a central server . Each computer is equally responsible for providing data. Peer to peer is optimal for sharing files that can then be downloaded. Disadvantages: Without a dedicated server there is no central device to manage security or backups . Backups must be performed on each individual system. Computer performance will decrease with more devices connected to the network, especially if other machines are slow. Advantages: This is a simpler network than client-server to set up as no server is required . Clients are not dependent on a server . Perfect for quickly sharing files between systems , such as downloading media files. Data Packets When sending data across a network, files are broken down into smaller parts called data packets . ​ Whole files are too large to transfer as one unit so data packets allow data to be transferred across a network quickly . ​ Each packet of data is redirected by routers across networks until it arrives at its destination. Data packets may split up and use alternative routes to reach the destination address. ​ When all the packets have arrived at the destination address the data is reassembled back into the original file. Contents of a Data Packet: Header Payload Trailer Source address Destination address Packet number Protocol The data itself A checksum - this is a calculation on the data to see if any errors or corruption have occurred during transmission . Packet Switching vs Circuit Switching The key difference is that a circuit-switched network sends data along the same route . A packet-switched network sends data packets along different routes . Packet Switching With a packet-switched network the data is split into packets . The data packets are transmitted over a network and may take different routes to its destination. When all the packets have arrived the data is reassembled . The Internet is an example of a packet-switching network. Advantages of Packet Switching: Transmission is more secure as it is harder for a hacker to intercept complete data because it can take different routes . If a network device fails the data packets can take an alternative route . Data packets can be sent efficiently and individually across less busy routes . Disadvantages of Packet Switching: ​ Reassembling the data takes longer because packets may arrive out of order . It is less reliable than circuit switching as some data packets may not reach the destination (this is called packet loss ). Circuit Switching When data is transmitted over a circuit-switched network all of the data takes the same route to the destination address in one continuous stream . The data is quickly reassembled at the destination because it is already in the correct order . The old telephone system is an example of a circuit-switched network. Advantages of Circuit Switching: ​ Reassembling the data is quick because the packets arrive in the order that they were sent. It is more reliable than packet-switching because data is sent in one continuous stream . The transmission is fast and should encounter fewer errors - once the connection has been securely established . Disadvantages of Circuit Switching: Less secure as hackers could intercept the data and more easily access the data as it all takes the same route. Establishing a connection takes time to set up. If any device fails on the route then the whole connection breaks and data transfer will be incomplete. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.3a - Network Characteristics: ​ 1a. Describe two differences between a LAN and WAN . [4 ] 1b. Give an example of how a LAN and a WAN could each be used . [2 ] ​ 2 a. Describe how peer-to-peer networks and client-server networks function. 2b. Give one use for both types of network. 2c. Describe the difference between client-side and server-side processing and give an example of when each would be used. [4 ] ​ 3a. Describe how packet switching works . [3 ] 3b. Describe the advantages of packet switching . [3 ] 3c. Describe the disadvantages of packet switching . [2 ] ​ 4a. Describe how circuit switching works . [3 ] 4b. Describe the advantages of circuit switching . [3 ] 4c. Describe the disadvantages of circuit switching . [3 ] ​ 5a. Draw and label diagrams of client-server and peer-to-peer networks. [4 ] 5b. Draw diagrams of packet switching and circuit switching . [2 ] 3.2b - SQL Theory Topics 3.3b - Protocols & TCP-IP Stack

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