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  • 1.5 - Performance - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.5: Performance Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + The performance of a computer system is affected by three main factors: Cache Memory: Size & Levels What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . What are the 3 levels of cache memory? Level 1 cache is the smallest level but it is also the fastest . Level 2 cache is larger than level 1 but slightly slower. Level 3 cache is located outside of the CPU core which makes it slower than the first two levels but it is much larger . How does cache memory work? ​ When the CPU searches for data , it looks first in level 1 cache, then level 2 and then level 3 . If the data has been found , this is called a 'cache hit '. If the data is not found then the CPU searches in RAM instead which takes more time - this is called a 'cache miss '. How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is closer to the CPU than RAM , meaning that it can provide data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate . ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because repeatedly used instructions can be stored and accessed faster . ​ Larger level 1 and level 2 cache sizes will improve a computer's performance as data can be accessed extremely quickly . What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is costly, so most computers only have a small amount . ​ Multiple cache misses will result in data latency (delay) as information is accessed from RAM which is further away from the CPU. Clock Speed What is clock speed? Clock speed is the measure of how quickly a CPU can process instructions . ​ Clock speed is measured in Gigahertz (GHz) . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of 3.5 GHz . This means it can perform 3.5 billion cycles a second . How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in better performance because more instructions can be processed each second . How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A core is a complete set of CPU components (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to perform its own FDE cycle . ​ A multi-core CPU has more than one set of components within the same CPU. How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can execute one instruction at a time , a dual-core processor can execute two instructions, and a quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously . ​ Therefore, a computer with more cores will have a higher performance because it can process more instructions at once . What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If one core is waiting for another core to finish processing, performance may not increase at all. ​ Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores , so it will not run any quicker on a multi-core computer. Q uesto's Q uestions 1.5 - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels 1a. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe the three levels of cache memory . [ 3 ] 1c. Describe what is meant by a ' cache hit ' and a ' cache miss '. [ 2 ] 1d. Describe two ways that more c ache memory will mean performance is higher . [ 4 ] 1e. Explain why most computers only have a small amount of cache memory. [ 1 ] Clock Speed 2a. What is clock speed ? What is it measured in? [ 2 ] 2b. Explain how a higher clock speed improves performance . [ 2 ] 2c. Explain the terms 'overclocking ' and 'underclocking ' and explain the effects of both on the performance of a computer. [ 4 ] ​ Number of Cores 3a. What is a core ? [ 2 ] 3b. Explain why a quad-core processor should have a higher performance than a dual-core processor . [ 3 ] 3c. Explain two reasons why having more cores doesn't necessarily mean the performance will be better . [ 2 ] 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.6 - Additional Hardware Theory Topics

  • 8.2 - Understanding Algorithms - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    8.2: Understanding Algorithms Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is an algorithm? An algorithm is a set of instructions , presented in a logical sequence . ​ In an exam you may be asked to read and understand an algorithm that has been written. To prove your understanding you may be asked to respond by actions such as listing the outputs of the algorithm, correcting errors or identifying an error within it. ​ Programmers create algorithm designs as a method of planning a program before writing any code. This helps them to consider the potential problems of the program and makes it easier to start creating source code. There are two main methods of defining algorithms : Defining Algorithms - Pseudocode & Flowcharts Pseudocode Pseudocode is not a specific programming language but a more general method of describing instructions . It should be unambiguous, and it should not resemble any particular kind of programming language (e.g. Python or Java), so it can theoretically be turned into working code in any language. ​ Generally, pseudocode can be written in any way that is readable and clearly shows its purpose. However, the Eduqas exam board advises that pseudocode for the programming exam should follow the conventions below : Annotation { Write your comment in curly brackets} ​ Define data type price is integer firstname is string ​ Declare a variable's value set price = 100 set firstname = "Marcella" ​ Input / output output "Please enter your first name" input firstname Selection (must have indentation) if firstname = "Steven" then​ output "Hello" + firstname elif firstname = "Steve" then output "Please use full name" else output "Who are you?" end if ​ Iteration (while loop) while firstname ! = "Steven" output "Guess my name." input firstname repeat Iteration (for loop) for i in range 10 input item next i ​ Define a subroutine Declare Sub1 [Subroutine content indented] End Sub1 ​ Call a subroutine call Sub1 Flowcharts A flowchart can be used to visually represent an algorithm. The flowchart symbols are: Algorithm Examples Below are two different methods for representing the same algorithm - a program to encourage people to buy items cheaply at a supermarket. The program allows the price of items in a supermarket to be entered until the total reaches 100. The total price and the number of items entered are tracked as the program loops. Once the total reaches 100 or more, an if statement checks how many items have been entered and a different message is printed if there are 20 or more items, 30 or more items or less than 20 items. Pseudocode Flowchart {This is a program to see how many items you can buy in a supermarket before you spend over £100} ​ total is integer, itemsentered is integer, itemprice is integer set total = 0 set itemsentered = 0 ​ while total < 100 output "enter the price of the next item" input itemprice total = total + itemprice itemsentered = itemsentered + 1 repeat if itemsentered >= 20 then output "You are on your way to saving money." elif itemsentered => 30 then output "You're a real money saver." else output "Look for better deals next time." end if Reading Algorithms In an exam you may be asked to read an algorithm and prove your understanding , most commonly by listing the outputs . ​ Start from the first line and follow the program line by line , recording the value of variables as you go . ​ When you encounter a for loop , repeat the indented code as many times as stated in the range . Example Algorithm: Start NewProgram ​ i is integer maxvalue is integer ​ input maxvalue ​ for i = 1 to maxvalue output (i * i) ??????? ​ output 'program finished' ​ End NewProgram Example Questions: 1. List the outputs produced by the algorithm if the 'maxvalue' input is 5 . ​ 2. State the code that has been replaced by '???????' and what the code's purpose is. Example Answers: 1. Outputs: 1 4 9 16 25 program finished 2. Missing Code: next i Purpose: Moves the loop to the next iteration. Watch on YouTube Q uesto's Q uestions 8.2 - Understanding Algorithms: ​ 1a. Read the algorithm shown on the left and list all outputs in the correct order if the inputs are 2 for height and 72 for weight . ​ 1b. Give the code that is missing from line 25 . 8.1 - Programming Principles Theory Topics 8.3 - Writing Algorithms

  • Greenfoot | CSNewbs

    Links: Installing Greenfoot Greenfoot Game Tutorial Glossary of Key Code Help with Errors I'm Greta the Gecko and I'm here to teach you Greenfoot.

  • 3.1b - Hardware & Internet - OCR GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    3.1b: Network Hardware & Internet Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2020 Network Devices When sending data across a network, files are broken down into smaller parts called data packets . ​ Whole files are too large to transfer as one unit so data packets allow data to be transferred across a network quickly . ​ Each packet of data is redirected by routers across networks until it arrives at its destination. Data packets may split up and use alternative routes to reach the destination address. ​ When all the packets have arrived at the destination address the data is reassembled back into the original file. Wireless Access Point A Wireless Access Point provides a link between wireless and wired networks . It creates a wireless local area network that allows WiFi-enabled devices to connect to a wired network. ​ Examples of a wireless access point in a public space could be a WiFi or Bluetooth hotspot , for example a WiFi hotspot in a coffee shop or airport to provide access to the internet. ​ A wireless access point may be a separate device or built into another device such as a router. Router Routers are used to transfer data packets between networks . ​ Routers receive data packets and use the IP address in the packet header to determine the best route to transmit the data. ​ Data is transferred from router to router across the internet towards the destination. ​ A router stores the IP address of each computer connected to it on the network and uses a list called a routing table to calculate the quickest and shortest route to transfer data. Switch A switch is used to connect devices together on a LAN . ​ It receives data packets from a connected node, reads the destination address in the packet header and forwards the data directly to its destination. ​ A switch will generate a list of the MAC addresses of all devices connected to it when it receives data , and must scan for a matching destination address before sending. ​ An alternative to a switch is a hub but a hub is slower and less secure as it forwards a copy of received data to all connected nodes . Network Interface Controller / Card A Network Interface Controller (NIC ) commonly also known as a Network Interface Card is an internal piece of hardware that is required for the computer to connect to a network . The card includes a MAC address which is used when sending data across a LAN . An ethernet cable is plugged into the network card to allow data to be exchanged between the device and a network. A NIC used to be a separate expansion card but is now typically embedded on the motherboar d . Transmission Media Although not technically a device, the communication channel along which data is transferred will affect performance . Three common types of transmission media include: ​ Ethernet cables - used typically on a LAN to transfer data between nodes and hardware such as switches. Examples include Cat5e and Cat6. Fibre Optic cables - very fast but more expensive and fragile cables typically used to send data quickly along a WAN . Data is sent as pulses of light . Coaxial cables - older , slower , copper cables that are not used as much in modern times as they can be affected by electromagnetic interference . The Internet The internet is a global network of interconnected networks . ​ The world wide web (WWW ) is not the same as the internet. It is a way of accessing information , using protocols such as HTTPS to view web pages . ​ Servers provide services on the internet , such as a web server which responds to the web browser (client) request to display a web page . The web server processes the client request to prepare the web page and return it so the web browser can display it to the user . ​ A website must be hosted (stored) on a web server so that it can be accessed by others using the internet . A unique domain name (e.g. csnewbs.com) must be registered with a domain registrar – this is a company that checks the name is valid and not already taken . What is the Internet? DNS Servers ​A DNS ( Domain Name System ) server stores a list of domain names and a list of corresponding IP addresses where the website is stored. ​ The first thing to understand is that every web page has a domain name that is easy for humans to remember and type in (such as www.csnewbs.com ) as well as a related IP address (such as 65.14.202.32) which is a unique address for the device that the web page is stored on. The steps taken to display a web page: 1. A domain name is typed into the address bar of a browser . 2. A query is sent to the local DNS server for the corresponding IP address of the domain name . www.facebook.com 3. The local DNS server will check if it holds an IP address corresponding to that domain name. If it does it passes the IP address to your browser . 66.220.144.0 4. The browser then connects to the IP address of the server and accesses the web site . If the local DNS server does not hold the IP address then the query is passed to another DNS server at a higher level until the IP address is resolved. If the IP address is found, the address is passed on to DNS servers lower in the hierarchy until it is passed to your local DNS server and then to your browser. Cloud Storage The cloud refers to networks of servers accessed on the internet . Cloud computing is an example of remote service provision . Cloud servers can have different purposes such as running applications , remote processing and storing data . ​ When you store data in 'the cloud', using services such as Google Drive or Dropbox, your data is stored on large servers owned by the hosting company . The hosting company (such as Google) is responsible for keeping the servers running and making your data accessible on the internet . ​ Cloud storage is very convenient as it allows people to work on a file at the same time and it can be accessed from different devices. However, if the internet connection fails , or the servers are attacked then the data could become inaccessible . Cloud Storage Characteristics: ​ ✓ - Huge CAPACITY and you can upgrade your subscription if you need more storage. ​ ✓ / X - Cloud storage is difficult to rank in terms of PORTABILITY , DURABILITY and ACCESS SPEED because it depends on your internet connection. A fast connection would mean that cloud storage is very portable (can be accessed on a smartphone or tablet) but a poor connection would make access difficult . ​ ✓ - Cloud storage is typically free for a certain amount of storage. Users can then buy a subscription to cover their needs - Dropbox allows 2 GB for free or 2 TB for £9.99 a month. Q uesto's Q uestions 3.1b - Network Hardware & Internet: 1a. Explain how a switch works. [ 2 ] 1b. Describe the purpose of a router . [ 2 ] 1c. State what WAP stands for and why it is used . [ 2 ] 1d. State what NIC stands for and why it is required . [ 2 ] 1e. State the differences between the three main types of transmission media . [ 3 ] ​ 2a. State what the internet is and how it is different to the world wide web . [ 2 ] 2b. What is web hosting ? [ 2 ] ​ 3a. What is a DNS server ? [ 2 ] 3b. Describe, using a mix of text and icons / images , how a DNS server is used to display a web page . [5 ] 3c. Describe how a DNS server searches for an IP address if it is not found on the local DNS server . [ 2 ] ​ 4a. Describe what cloud computing is. [ 2 ] 4b. State two advantages and two disadvantages of the cloud . [ 4 ] 3.1a - Network Types & Performance Theory Topics 3.2a - Wired & Wireless Networks

  • 4.3 - Green IT | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    4.3 - Green IT Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 What is 'Green IT'? ‘Green IT ’ is to use computers and IT resources in an efficient and environmentally responsible way to reduce an organisation’s carbon footprint . ​ To 'reduce carbon footprint ' means to decrease the amount of pollution (such as CO2 ) produced by an organisation and to engage in more eco-friendly practice. Examples of Green IT Practice Global Requirements of Green IT United Nations Climate Change conferences occur every year and are attended by leaders of each country in the United Nations. The conferences establish obligations for countries to work towards reducing their carbon footprints and emissions of greenhouse gases . Whilst Green IT is not specifically mentioned in these talks, IT is a hugely important sector with large annual emissions that need to be reduced to meet the climate change limitations, such as the Paris Agreement. ​ In the UK, the Greening Government ICT Strategy (running between 2011 and 2015) was an annual report that investigated how IT use could become 'greener' within the government . Positive consequences of this strategy included: ​ Using more cloud storage technology , enabling fewer individual storage devices to be purchased, reducing emissions . Using social media more widely to contact voters - saving money by posting fewer letters and leaflets. Increasing the use of teleconferencing and video calls - reducing the need for unnecessary travel to meetings and avoiding the generation of heavy pollution. Q uesto's Q uestions 4.3 - Green IT: ​ 1. What is meant by the term 'Green IT '. [3 ] ​ 2a. Explain four ways that an organisation can follow good green IT practice . [4 ] 2b. Describe two reasons why it is beneficial to a company of following Green IT . [4 ] ​ 3a. Why are the United Nations Climate Change conferences important ? [2 ] 3b. Describe two ways that the UK government have used Green IT . [4 ] Turn off computers , monitors and other connected devices when not in use . Adjust power options to help minimise power consumption.​ Use cloud storage or virtualisation to reduce the number of physical devices being bought, powered and maintained. Repair older devices rather than throwing them away. Consider if it is necessary to print a document before doing so and print only what is required . Recycle ink cartridges and paper . Donate older equipment to charities or schools for reuse . Why use Green IT? It is in an organisation's best interests to use Green IT practices for the following reasons: To become more sustainable by reducing the company's carbon footprint and positively impacting the environment . Reducing energy costs (e.g. by turning equipment off when not in use) and saving money . Improving the public image of the organisation as people are increasingly environmentally conscious and will prefer to do business with a company that follows environmentally-friendly policies. 4.2 - Global Legislation Topic List 5.1 - Data Types & Sources

  • 4.6 - Graphical Representation - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    4.6: Graphical Representation Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + There are two main types of graphics used in computer systems: raster (also known as bitmap ) and vector graphics. Raster (Bitmap) Graphics Vector Graphics Raster graphics are made up of a grid of pixels . Vector graphics use objects (lines and curves ) to mathematically form shapes. If scaled to a larger size, a vector graphic does not lose any image quality . If scaled to a larger size, a raster graphic loses image quality . Raster graphics are generally larger in file size because data is stored for each pixel . Vector graphics are generally smaller in file size . Examples of raster images include photographs and screenshots. Examples of vector graphics include logos and cartoons. How to Calculate File Size File Size = Resolution x Colour Depth The resolution of an image is the width in pixels multiplied by the height in pixels. x The colour depth (also known as bit depth ) is the number of bits that are used to represent each pixel's colour . 1 bit represents 2 colours (0 or 1 / black or white). 2 bits will allow for 4 colours, 3 bits for 8 colours, 4 for 16 etc. A colour depth of 1 byte (8 bits ) allows for 256 different colours . ​ Remember you must multiply the colour depth , not the number of available colours (e.g. 8 not 256). ​ The RGB (Red , Green , Blue ) colour model uses 3 bytes (a byte of 256 red shades , a byte of 256 green shades and a byte of 256 blue shades ) that together can represent 16.7 million different colours. Example Height = 6 bits ​ Resolution = height x width Resolution = 8 x 6 = 48 bits -------------------------- Colour Depth = 1 bit (only 2 colours) -------------------------- File Size = Resolution x Colour Depth File Size = 48 x 1 = 48 bits ​ File Size in bytes = 48 ÷ 8 = 6 bytes File Size in kilobytes = 6 ÷ 1000 = 0.00 6 kilobytes Width = 8 bits Look carefully at the exam question to see if the examiner is expecting the answer in bits, bytes or kilobytes . ​ Always calculate the file size in bits first then: Divide the file size in bits by 8 to convert to bytes . Divide the file size in bytes by 1000 to convert to kilobytes . Metadata for Graphics Metadata is additional data about a file . Common image metadata includes: ​ Dimensions Colour depth Make Model Orientation Exposure time Metadata is important, For example, the dimensions must be known so the image can be displayed correctly . Metadata for a smartphone-taken picture: width in pixels, e.g. 720 height in pixels, e.g. 480 Q uesto's Q uestions 4.6 - Graphical Representation: 1. Describe three differences between raster (bitmap) and vector images . [ 6 ] ​ 2. How many colours can be represented with a colour depth of... a. 1 bit [ 1 ] b . 5 bits [ 1 ] c. 1 byte [ 1 ] ​ 3. How is the file size of an image calculated? [2 ] ​ 4a. An image file has a width of 10 pixels , a height of 8 pixels and a colour depth of 2 . What is the file size in bytes ? [3 ] ​ 4b. An image file has a width of 120 pixels , a height of 120 pixels and a colour depth of 1 . What is the file size in kilobytes ? [3 ] ​ 4c. An image file has a width of 32 pixels , a height of 21 pixels and a colour depth of 1 . What is the file size in bytes ? [3 ] ​ 5. State what is meant by metadata and give three examples of metadata for a graphics file. [ 3 ] 4.5 Character Sets & Data Types Theory Topics 4.7 - Sound Representation

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.5 - Communication Hardware | CSNewbs

    1.5: Communication Hardware Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 The devices on this page are used to create or link together networks , allowing data to be sent between computer systems . Hub A hub receives data packets from a connected device and transfers a copy to all connected nodes . Switch A switch receives data packets , processes them and transfers them on to the device s pecifically listed in the destination address of the packet. Modem Modems are used to send data across the telephone network . The telephone lines can only transfer analog signals so a modem is used to convert a computer's digital data into an analog signal . Another modem converts the signal back to a digital format at the receiving end. Router Routers are used to transfer data packets between networks . Data is sent from network to network on the internet towards the destination address listed in the data packet. A router stores the address of each computer on the network and uses routing tables to calculate the quickest and shortest path . Wireless Access Point (WAP) Provides a link between wireless and wired networks . It creates a wireless local area network that allows WiFi enabled devices to connect to a wired network. Combined Device Also known as a hybrid device , this provides the functionality of multiple communication devices (e.g modem, router, switch and/or wireless access point) in a single device . They can be more expensive than a single device but are more adaptable - if the routing part of the device fails it might still be able to function as a switch / wireless access point etc. ​ However, you will see an increased performance from a standalone device rather than a combined one as standalone devices have more complex features (e.g. VPN support). Network Interface Card (Network Adapter) A Network Interface Card (often shorted to NIC ) is an internal piece of hardware that is required for the computer to connect to a network . It used to be a separate expansion card but now it is commonly built directly into the motherboard (and known as a network adapter ). Wireless network interface cards allow wireless network connection. Q uesto's Q uestions 1.5 - Communication Hardware: 1. What is the difference between a hub and a switch ? [2 ] 2. Explain how a modem works. [3 ] 3. Explain the purpose of a router . [2 ] 4. What is a Wireless Access Point (WAP )? [2 ] 5. Describe what is meant by a 'combined device '. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using a combined device. [3 ] 1.4 - Connectivity 1.6 - Hardware Troubleshooting Topic List

  • 4.1e - Shifts & Masks | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 4.1e - Shifts & Masks Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1e - Shifts & Masks: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 4.1d - Binary Calculations Theory Topics 4.2 - Data Structures

  • Greenfoot Guide #6 | Counter | CSNewbs

    6. The Counter Greenfoot Tutorial 1. Import the Counter The counter class can be imported into your Greenfoot world. ​ Select Edit in the main Greenfoot window then ' Import Class... ' and choose Counter . Watch on YouTube: The Counter class will appear in the Actor classes list . Right-click on the Counter, choose the ' new Counter() ' option and drag it into the world. ​ Now right-click on the background and select 'Save the World' once you have dragged the counter into the world. 2. Increase the Counter by 1 Two lines of code are required to increase the counter . ​ Add this code when your main character is removing the collectible object . This code allows your main character to access the 'add' method from the Counter class . ​ The method 'add ' just increases the value of the counter by the number in the brackets . ​ To decrease the counter , type a negative value in the brackets, such as -1 . < Part 5 - Play Sounds 3. Compile and Run Click the Compile button at the top of the code editor . ​ Then you can go back to the main Greenfoot window and click Run to test if your counter increases . Click on me if you've got an error that you're stuck with. Part 7 - Extension Ideas >

  • Old Eduqas Topics (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Topics from the 2016 Eduqas Specification This page contains information from the 2016 Eduqas specification that was removed for the 2020 specification. ​Quick Links: ​ Buses & Instruction Sets (RISC & CISC) Protocols (IMAP & POP3) Network Devices (Gateway) Human-Computer Interaction (Command-Line Interface, Touch-Sensitive Interface, Menu-Driven Interface, Voice-Driven Interface) Cyber Attacks (Dictionary Attack, Buffer Overflow, Human Weakness) Software Protection (Secure by Design, Too Many Permissions, Scripting Restrictions, Validation with Parameters) Data Policies (Acceptable Use Policy, Disaster Recovery, Cookies) Environmental Issues (Tips to Reduce Waste, Positive Impacts of Technology) Object Oriented Programming (Greenfoot and Java) Programming Topics (Assembly Language, HTML, Greenfoot) Buses Buses & Instruction Sets Buses Data is transferred within a computer system along pathways called buses . ​ There are three types of bus: Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus Sends a memory address of where data is stored.​​ The address is sent from the CPU to RAM in the FDE cycle. Transfers data between components. Data is sent both ways . Sends control signals from the control unit to other components of the system. Status signals are sent back to the CPU. An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has fewer instructions than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but quick for basic tasks . CISC has more complex instructions available and can therefore perform complicated tasks . Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. Protocols Protocols POP3 ( Post Office Protocol 3 ) and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol ) are both protocols for receiving and storing emails from a mail server. Gateway Network Devices Gateway A gateway joins together two networks that use different base protocols . For example, a gateway could link together a LAN to a WAN . HCI Human - Computer Interaction Command-Line Interface Touch-Sensitive Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a command-line interface (CLI ). This type of interface is entirely text-based and requires users to interact with the system by typing commands . This is a complicated process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only experts who have been trained t o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. Another type of user interface is a touch-sensitive interface , used with smartphones and tablets . ​ A human interacts with the device by pressing on a touchscreen , making it very intuitive and suitable for most users without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may not work with dirty or wet fingers and it will take longer to write text compared to using a keyboard. Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface displays data in a series of linked menus . Examples include cash machines (ATMs) and old iPods . ​ This type of interface is generally user friendly and easy to use as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be annoying to find specific data through a large number of menus without a search feature. Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be controlled by speaking commands aloud to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's Alexa devices, Apple's Siri technology and Google Home . ​ This interface is intuitive , can be used hands-free and helps to speed up processes . However commands may be misheard or limited in what can be performed. Cyber Attacks Cyber Attacks Dictionary Password Attack This uses a file containing every word in the dictionary and cycles through them all. This method is relatively easy to program but will only break the simplest passwords . Buffer Overflow Attack A buffer is a temporary storage location . ​ A buffer overflow attack causes a program to try to store more data in a buffer than it can hold which can lead to adjacent memory locations being overwritten . An attacker can use the buffer overflow to insert malicious code to change data or steal confidential data . Human Weakness The biggest weakness in online security is often not the systems in place but carelessness or mistakes made by humans . Social engineering means to trick others into revealing their personal data by posing as a trusted source . For example, impersonating an IT technician via email and asking to send a username and password. Humans can accidentally compromise data by downloading malicious files or being unsafe online, like using the same password for multiple different accounts. Attackers can access unauthorised information in person by shoulder surfing and watching them as they enter sensitive data such as a PIN or password. Software Protection Software Protection The following methods of protection are considered in the design, testing and creation stages of developing software . Secure by Design This method puts security as the most important concept when creating and designing software . ​ By focusing on security when designing software there should be less need for later updates and patches and attacks are less likely to succeed . Too Many Permissions Apps require permission to use device features (such as the camera or microphone of a smartphone) when they are downloaded. Programmers should only request permission for features that the software requires . ​ Some malicious apps steal data or spy on users - and the worst part is that you've given permission for it to do it! Users can avoid suspicious apps by reading reviews, checking there are no unnecessary permission requests , only downloading the software you need / will use and uninstall apps if permissions change . Scripting Restrictions A script is a set of instructions executed on a website. For example, Facebook uses a JavaScript script to post a status and another to read your private messages. ​ The Same Origin Policy (SOP) is a security precaution that prevents websites from using scripts on other sites that you have open . For example, if you are using JavaScript to post a status on Facebook then visit an infected site, that site can't also use JavaScript to access your Facebook data, because even though they both use JavaScript, they are from a different origin . Without SOP an infected website could access personal data or infect a computer with malware by maliciously using the same scripts as other websites you have used . Programmers should set scripting restrictions when creating websites. Validation with Parameters A parameter is a measure that is used when validating data , it is usually a range or limit. For example, the parameters of a length check may be whether the data is between 1 and 10 characters . ​ Programmers must ensure validation is used on websites with suitable parameters to prevent attacks such as an SQL injection. Data Policies Data Policies Data policies are written documents that clearly define how data should be managed in an organisation. It is important that all employees stick to these policies and requirements so that data is kept safe and can be replaced if lost or corrupted. The following methods are examples of common data policies. Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Workplaces and schools often require people to sign an acceptable use policy (AUP) before being allowed to use the network. It is a list of rules and expected behaviour that users must follow when using the computer systems. Typical rules include: Which websites are off-limits (such as social media or gambling sites), Download permissions (such as who can download and install software) Email communication (such as appropriate language). Punishments if rules of the AUP are broken. ​ The AUP is sometimes known as a Code of Conduct . This is an example of a formal code of practice , with written rules and clear expectations . An informal code of practice would not be officially written down , such as personal habits and preferences (e.g. email layout or desk organisation). Disaster Recovery With important data often stored on a computer network, it is absolutely vital that a detailed and effective disaster recovery policy is in place in the event of data being lost due to an unexpected disaster. ​ Disasters include natural disasters (e.g. fire, flood, lightning), hardware failure (e.g. power supply unit failing), software failure (e.g. virus damage) and malicious damage (e.g. hacking). ​ ​ There are three clear parts to a disaster recovery policy:​​ ​ Before the disaster: All of the possible risks should be analysed to spot if there are any weaknesses in preparation. Preventative measures should be taken after the analysis, such as making rooms flood-proof or storing important data at a different location . Staff training should take place to inform employees what should happen in the event of a disaster. During the disaster: The staff response is very important – employees should follow their training and ensure that data is protected and appropriate measures are put in place. Contingency plans should be implemented while the disaster is taking place, such as uploading recent data to cloud storage or securing backups in a safe room and using alternative equipment until the disaster is over. After the disaster: Recovery measures should be followed, such as using backups to repopulate computer systems. Replacement hardware needs to be purchased for equipment that is corrupted or destroyed. Software needs to be reinstalled on the new hardware. Disaster recovery policies should also be updated and improved . Cookies A cookie is a small piece of data that is stored by websites when you visit them. They allow the website to identify the user and are often used to speed up processes , such as: Automatic login (by saving account details) Save items into a basket (such as pizza delivery sites) Display adverts related to your previous search terms . Although they can be used to save time, some argue that cookies can be intrusive and store too much information. Environmental Issues Environmental Issues Tips to Reduce Waste Turn off computers , monitors and other connected devices when not in use . Adjust power options to help minimise power consumption.​ ​Devices with the Energy Star sticker use between 30% and 70% less electricity than usual. Repair older devices rather than throwing them away. Ink jet printers use up to 95% less energy than laser jets.​​ Think twice about printing paper, don't waste ink and remember to recycle paper . Positive Environmental Impacts Communication advancements (such as video messengers) reduces pollution as people do not have to travel to speak to each other. This is especially beneficial in business - workers can talk from the office and do not need to catch a plane to speak. Smart devices can monitor usage and reduce energy waste - such as smart air conditioners and home security systems. Collaboration software (such as cloud-based technology and Google Docs) allows experts to work together and share data. The internet and research databases allows scientists to study the environment more efficiently. Documents can be viewed on a screen rather than printed out - books and newspaper articles can be read on kindles / tablets saving paper and ink . New materials and more environmentally-friendly processes have been developed thanks to increased technology and research. Object Oriented Programming Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Java is an example of object-oriented programming (OOP) where a programmer is able to code objects that can be visually placed onto a background. Greenfoot is an IDE for Java . Superclass A class from which other 'subclasses' will inherit characteristics ; e.g. hippos, crocodiles and polar bears will inherit properties from the Animals superclass. Object A single object from a class ; e.g. one crocodile object from the Crocodile class. Class A set of objects which share the same properties ; e.g. all PolarBears will behave in a similar way. Comment Two / symbols will allow you to write a comment to explain the code . Method A series of instructions that an object will follow . The act() method will loop in Greenfoot when the play button is pressed. Programming Programming Topics Variable Scope & Lifetime The scope of a variable refers to the parts of the program where the variable can be viewed and used , e.g. a variable with global scope can be accessed anywhere in the program . The lifetime of a variable is the amount of time the variable is stored in memory and therefore can be used , e.g. local variables can only be accessed throughout the subroutine they are created in. Programming Languages: Assembly Language HTML Greenfoot Theory Topics

  • Python | Extended Task 5 | CSNewbs

    Extended Task 5 Collection of Colours A new paint company , 'Sparkle and Shine Paint Schemes ' needs a program that can manage the different colours they sell to customers. They currently have a file with many different colours and want a program made with features to add, remove and list the different colours . For this task, you will need to create a document and include the following sections (with screenshots where appropriate): ​ An introduction to explain the Purpose of your program . A List of Requirements for a successful program. Screenshots of your code (with comments in your code to show understanding). Testing – Create a plan to show how you will test your program and then explanations of any errors that you found and how they were fixed . An Evaluation of what worked, what didn’t, and how you met each of your requirements from your original list. Also, discuss further improvements that you could have made to improve your program. Reminders for this task: You will need to create a selection of options for the user to choose from. Subroutines and a while true loop may help. Section 10 will help you to open, write and read from files . Section 10c shows how to remove lines from a file. There are multiple ways to approach this program, and your solution might look different from the example. Break the problem down and focus on one part at a time. Example solution: Use a menu to select the different options using a command word. Download the colours file: Selecting Total will list the number of colours in the file. This should change whenever a new colour is added or one is removed . Selecting Add will allow the user to enter the name of a new colour to be added to the file . Selecting Letter will allow the user to enter a letter . ​ All colours beginning with that letter should be displayed . Selecting Remove will allow the user to enter a colour to be removed from the file . Selecting Random will display a random colour from the file. Selecting End will stop the program. ⬅ Extended Task 4 (Vet Surgery) Extended Task 6 (Word Game) ➡

  • 4.4 - Arithmetic Shift - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    4.4: Arithmetic Shift Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is arithmetic shift? Arithmetic shift is used to multiply and divide binary numbers . The effect of shifting left is to multiply a binary number. The effect is doubled by each place that is shifted . x The effect of shifting right is to divide a binary number. ÷ Shifting by 1 has an effect of 2 . ​ Shifting by 2 has an effect of 4 . ​ Shifting by 3 has an effect of 8 . For example, shifting left by 2 places has an effect of multiplying by 4 . Another example: Shifting right by 3 places has an effect of diving by 8 . How to shift a binary number: An exam question may ask you to arithmetically shift a binary number of up to 16 digits . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.4 - Arithmetic Shift: ​ 1a. Draw a diagram to show the effect of multiplying and dividing a binary number . [2 ] 1b. Draw a diagram or table to show the effect a shift has for each place from 1 to 4 . For example, a shift of 1 place has an effect of 2. [4 ] ​ 2. State the effect of the following shifts: a. Shift right by 2 places. b. Shift left by 1 place. c. Shift left 3 places. d. Shift right by 4 places. [ 1 each ] ​ 3. Shift the following binary numbers and state the effect of the shift: a. 10101011 : Shift left by 2 places. b. 11101100 : Shift right by 3 place. c. 00001011 : Shift right by 2 places. d. 01101110 : Shift left by 1 place. [ 2 each ] Watch on YouTube 4.3 Binary Calculations Theory Topics 4.5 - Character Sets & Data Types

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