top of page

Search CSNewbs

287 items found for ""

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 5.3 - Threats | CSNewbs

    5.3 - Threats Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What are the 7 threats to computer systems? Phishing Misleading individuals or organisations into giving up sensitive information (such as passwords or bank details), often through the use of emails . Hacking Exploiting weaknesses in a system or network to create, view, modify or delete files without permission. Similar to data theft - illegally removing copies of personal or company data from computer systems. :( Trojan Appears to be a useful or well-known program but when downloaded and installed it secretly gives the attacker a ' backdoor ' to your system. Through this backdoor the attacker can access data without the user knowing. Football 2020 FREE Interception Data packets on a network are intercepted by a third party (e.g. hacker) and copied, edited or transferred to a different location than the intended destination. Eavesdropping Intercepting , in real-time , private communication traffic such as instant messages or video calls . Social Engineering Tricking individuals into giving sensitive information , e.g. by claiming to be from the IT department and asking for their password and username to check for viruses. Virus A virus can replicate itself and spread from system to system by attaching itself to infected files that are then downloaded and opened. Once activated, a virus can modify data or corrupt a system so that it stops working. Q uesto's Q uestions 5.3 - Threats: ​ 1. An IT company is making an information booklet about the different types of online threats . Describe each type of threat: a. Phishing b. Hacking / Data Theft c. Trojan d. Interception e. Eavesdropping f. Social Engineering g. Virus [2 each ] 5.2 - Operational Issues Topic List 5.4 - Physical Security

  • HTML | CSNewbs

    I'm Arthur the Alligator and I'm here to teach you HTML. HTML GUide Show me how to make a webpage in HTML from scratch. List of Tags Show me a list of tags I can use.

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.8 & 1.9 - Number Systems | CSNewbs

    1.8 & 1.9 - Number Systems & Conversion Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 What is binary? What is denary? Denary (also known as decimal ) is the number system that you've been using since primary school. ​ Denary is a base 10 number system. This means that it has 10 possible values - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 . How to convert from binary to denary: How to convert from denary to binary: What is hexadecimal? Hexadecimal is a base 16 number system. This means that it has 16 possible values - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F . ​ Hexadecimal is used as a shorthand for binary because it uses fewer characters to write the same value . This makes hexadecimal less prone to errors when reading or writing it , compared to binary. For example, 100111101011 is 9EB. ​ Hexadecimal only uses single-character values. Double-digit numbers are converted into letters - use the table on the right to help you understand. How to convert from binary to hexadecimal: How to convert from hexadecimal to binary: Converting from denary to hexadecimal / hexadecimal to denary To convert from denary to hexadecimal or the other way round you must convert to binary first . ​ Denary > Binary > Hexadecimal ​ Hexadecimal > Binary > Denary ​ Use the videos on this page if you need help converting to or from binary. ​ The most common number systems question in exams are from denary to hexadecimal or from hexadecimal to denary so make sure that you practice these conversions. Q uesto's Q uestions 1.8 & 1.9 - Number Systems: ​ 1. Explain why hexadecimal numbers are used as an alternative to binary . [ 2 ] ​ 2. Convert the following values from binary to denary : a. 00101010 b. 11011011 c. 01011101 d. 11101110 e. 01011111 [1 each ] ​ 3. Convert the following values from denary to binary : a. 35 b. 79 c. 101 d. 203 e. 250 [1 each ] ​ 4. Convert the following values from binary to hexadecimal : a. 11110101 b. 01100111 c. 10111010 d. 10010000 e. 11101001 [1 each ] ​ 5. Convert the following values from hexadecimal to binary : a. C2 b. 8A c. DE d. 54 e. F7 [1 each ] ​ 6. Convert the following values from denary to hexadecimal : a. 134 b. 201 c. 57 d. 224 e. 101 [1 each ] ​ 7. Convert the following values from hexadecimal to denary : a. 32 b. A5 c. 88 d. C0 e. BE [1 each ] Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube By now you should know that computer systems process data and communicate entirely in binary . ​ Section 1.7 explained different binary storage units such as bits (a single 0 or 1), nibbles (4 bits) and bytes (8 bits). ​ Binary is a base 2 number system. This means that it only has 2 possible values - 0 or 1 . Click the banners above to try self-marking quizzes (Google Form) on these topics. Denary to Binary: Binary to Denary: Binary to Hexadecimal: Hexadecimal to Binary: 1.7 - Units of Measurement Topic List 2.1 Software Types

  • 4.1e - Shifts & Masks | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 4.1e - Shifts & Masks Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1e - Shifts & Masks: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 4.1d - Binary Calculations Theory Topics 4.2 - Data Structures

  • 8.4 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    8.4: Sorting & Searching Algorithms Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Merge Sort Merge sort is a sorting algorithm based on the idea of ‘divide and conquer ’. A merge sort divides a list into half , again and again until each data item is separate . Then the items are combined in the same way as they were divided , but now in the correct order . When the individual lists are all merged together as one list again, then the data is in order and the algorithm will end . Bubble Sort This algorithm is based on the comparison of adjacent data elements . ​ Data elements are swapped if they are not in the correct order . A bubble sort is not suitable for large sets of data. Linear Search A linear search is the most simple search algorithm. ​ Each data item is searched in order from the first value to the last as if they were all laid out in a line . The list does not have to be in any order before it is searched . This search is also known as a sequential search because the list is searched in a sequence from start to end. For large lists , this search is not very efficient . Binary Search A binary search is a much more efficient searching algorithm as it generally searches through fewer data and is often much quicker - especially for large data sets. In a binary search, the middle point of the data is selected with each iteration and many data items can be ignored. However, the list of data must already be sorted in order before a binary search can take place. Q uesto's Q uestions 8.3 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms: ​ Linear Search Explain step-by-step how the number 8 would be found in the following list using a linear search : 12, 5, 3, 2, 8, 19, 14, 6 [4 ] ​ Binary Search Explain step-by-step how the number 2 would be found in the following list using a binary search : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 [6 ] ​ Merge Sort Explain step-by-step how a merge sort would sort the following list of numbers: 4, 8, 5, 1, 3, 6, 7, 2 [6 ] ​ Bubble Sort Explain step-by-step how a bubble sort would sort the following list of numbers: 3, 2, 6, 4, 1, 4 [6 ] Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube 8.3 - Writing Algorithms Theory Topics 8.5 - Validation & Verification

  • HTML Guide 2 - Essential Tags | CSNewbs

    2. Creating Essential Tags HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: What is a tag ? HTML uses tags to define the content of a webpage . ​ A tag uses angle brackets - they look just like my teeth... ​ Some examples of tags are and and ​ ​ ​ Most tags have a start tag and an end tag . The actual content is written in between the tags . For example : ​ The p tag is used to write a paragraph ​ Notice that the end tag uses a forward slash . < > Essential Tags There are three tags that are essential for every HTML web page : ​ - This tag declares the start and the end of your html web page. - The head is the part of the web page that the user will not see. - The body holds all of the content of the web page (text, images, video etc.) ​ Don't forget to use backslash for the end tags : / Use the image on the right to add the three essential tags (and their end tags) to your document. Now it is time to add something we can actually see! Text tags are up next. 1. Setup HTML Guide 3. Text Tags

  • Algorithms | CSNewbs

    Algorithms Pseudocode Pseudocode Pseudocode is not a specific programming language but a more general method of describing instructions . It should be unambiguous, and it should not resemble any particular kind of programming language (e.g. Python or Java), so it can theoretically be turned into real code in any language. ​ Generally, pseudocode can be written in any way that is readable and clearly shows its purpose. However, the Eduqas exam board advises that pseudocode for the programming exam should follow the conventions below : Annotation { Write your comment in curly brackets} ​ Define data type price is integer firstname is string ​ Declare a variable's value set price = 100 set firstname = "Marcella" ​ Input / output output "Please enter your first name" input firstname Selection (must have indentation) if firstname = "Steven" then​ output "Hello" + firstname elif firstname = "Steve" then output "Please use full name" else output "Who are you?" end if ​ Iteration (while loop) while firstname ! = "Steven" output "Guess my name." input firstname repeat Iteration (for loop) for i in range 10 input item next i ​ Define a subroutine Declare Sub1 [Subroutine content indented] End Sub1 ​ Call a subroutine call Sub1 Flowcharts flowchart A flowchart can be used to visually represent an algorithm. The flowchart symbols are: Algorithm Example example Pseudocode {This is a program to see how many items you can buy in a supermarket before you spend over £100} ​ total is integer, itemsentered is integer, itemprice is integer set total = 0 set itemsentered = 0 ​ while total < 100 output "enter the price of the next item" input itemprice total = total + itemprice itemsentered = itemsentered + 1 repeat if itemsentered >= 20 then output "You are on your way to saving money." elif itemsentered => 30 then output "You're a real money saver." else output "Look for better deals next time." end if Stop Flowchart

  • 5.1 - Languages & Translators - OCR GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    5.1: Languages & Translators Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2020 There are two types of programming languages used within computer systems: High-Level Languages Why do programmers use high-level languages? ​ H igh-level programming languages use code written in a way that is similar to a natural human language , such as English, making it easier to understand and use the language. ​ Using high-level languages leads to fewer errors and allows for more powerful and complex commands compared to low-level languages. ​ However, a high-level language must be translated into machine code (binary) before it can be run, as high-level languages cannot be executed directly by the CPU . Popular high-level languages: PYT HON C++ Ja v a Visual Basic Low-Level Languages Low-level languages do not closely resemble a natural human language , making it harder for humans to understand and write in. ​ Low-level languages are used when a program must be executed quickly or when programmers need to write code that interacts directly with the hardware , such as device drivers. ​ There are two types of low-level language : Machine Code ​ This is the pure binary code that computers can directly process and execute . ​ It is extremely tedious and difficult for humans to understand and write machine code. ​ However, machine code can be used when a programmer needs to perform a very specific command that can't be done in a high-level language. ​ Machine code will be executed faster than high-level programs because it is already in a format the CPU can execute and does not need to be translated . 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0101 0100 1010 1010 1010 1010 1111 1110 0010 1001 0100 1001 0010 0111 0111 0101 0011 1010 1000 0101 0110 0111 0000 1010 1010 0011 1101 1001 0010 1101 0010 0100 1001 0011 1010 1001 0101 0101 0010 0101 0111 0101 0101 1000 1011 0111 Assembly Language ​ Assembly language uses specialised command mnemonics to perform actions . See the Assembly Language section in the programming tab for a list of mnemonics such as INP , OUT and HLT . ​ Assembly language is preferred by many programmers over machine code because it is easier to understand and spot errors . ​ It is faster to execute than high-level languages and, like machine code, can be used to directly control the CPU . INP STA Number1 OUT HLT Number1 DAT Translators A translator changes (translates) a program written in one language into another language (usually machine code ). ​ There are two main types of translator : Interpreter An interpreter converts high-level language one line at a time into machine code and executes it. Compiler A compiler converts high-level language into machine code for execution at a later time. The entire program is converted at once . PYT HON PYT HON 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 0101 Interpreters vs Compilers Interpreter Compiler Execution Method: An interpreter translates source code (high level code) into machine code one line at a time . ​ Execution Speed: An interpreter is slower than a compiler because the code must be reinterpreted each time the program is run. ​ Complexity: Interpreters are smaller, simpler programs . ​ Error Reporting: In error reporting, the interpreter would encounter the errors and report it to the user immediately and stops the program from running.​ ​ Repetition: Interpreted programs can be edited and run without translating the whole program . Interpreters must reinterpret the program every time it is run. Execution Method: A compiler translates all the source code (high level code) into machine code in one go . A compiler produces an executable file that will run on other machines without the compiler needing to be installed. ​ Execution Speed: Compilers can produce much more efficient code than interpreters making the compiled programs run faster . ​ Complexity: Compilers tend to be large complex programs . ​ ​ Error Reporting: The compiler would analyse the entire program , taking note of where errors have occurred and record them in an error file . ​ Repetition: Compilation requires analysis and the generation of the code only once , whereas interpreters must re-interpret each time. However, compiled programs have to be re-compiled after any changes have been made. x1 ∞ x1 Q uesto's Q uestions 5.1 - Languages & Translators: ​ 1a. Describe three reasons why programmers use high-level languages . [ 3 ] 1b. Explain one limitation of using high-level languages . [2 ] ​ 2a. Describe a key difference between low-level languages and high-level languages . [ 2 ] 2b. Describe when a low-level language would be used instead of a high-level language . [2 ] 2c. Describe an advantage and a disadvantage of writing directly in machine code . [2 ] 2d. Describe what assembly language is. Give one benefit to using assembly language instead of machine code and one benefit to using it instead of a high-level language . [3 ] ​ 3. Compare high-level and low-level languages by stating which is: a. Easier to understand [ 1 ] b. Requiring translation [ 1 ] c. Quicker to execute [ 1 ] ​ 4. Compare interpreters and compilers for each of the following features : a. Execution Method b. Execution Speed c. Complexity d. Error Reporting e. Repetition [ 10 total ] 4.1 - Boolean Logic Theory Topics 5.2 - IDE

  • Python | 8b - 2D Lists | CSNewbs

    top Python 8b - 2D Lists Creating a List with Multiple Dimensions Lists can be given another dimension to hold data that is related to each other . ​ A scenario: Three students have taken two Chemistry tests, and their teacher has recorded the results in a 2-dimensional array (note that Python does not use arrays but uses lists instead): To create this in Python: Printing a 2D List To print the whole list, use a for loop to cycle through each record. ​ I have altered the normal i variable to be 'record', so it is more descriptive: Use the index number to print a specific record . Look at the table above and remember that Python starts counting at 0 so Edward is record 0, Bella 1 and Jacob 2: To print a specific data value, you need to define the record number and then the data index . ​ When using 2D lists, the first value is the row, and the second value is the column . Use the table at the very top to help you visualise this: Practice Task 1 Use the introduction at the top to help you create a 2D list with three friends in the first column, their age in the second column and their favourite colour in the third column. ​ Print the whole list. ​ Then print just the second person's information. Example solution: Searching Through a 2D List To search through a multi-dimensional list then you need to search through each record and then each data element for a specific value: Practice Task 2 Use the 2D list that you created in the first practice task. ​ Ask the user to enter a name. ​ Search through the list and print the record of that person's name. Example solution: ⬅ 8a - Using Lists 8 c - Dictionaries ➡

  • App Inventor 2 | The Basics | CSNewbs

    What is App Inventor? App Inventor 2 Link App Inventor 2 is software developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT ), a research university in America. ​ It allows users to create simple apps and learn about the way that they work in a fun manner. There is no need to learn how to program with text editors as everything is based around blocks, a bit like Scratch. ​ To open App Inventor 2 (the current version of the program) click the button in the top right. You will need to log in with a Google account. ​ There are two layouts to App Inventor, Designer and Blocks . You can switch between them with the bottoms in the top right corner. ​ This guide will show you how to make seven simple programs and introduce you to programming concepts such as variables and properties . Download all App Inventor images you will need for the 7 tasks by clicking the camera icon. Note to Computer Science Teachers - The easiest way to test programs made using App Inventor 2 is using the emulator which should be pre-installed by the IT technician team at your school. See here for information on how to set it up. Also, Google accounts are required to access and use App Inventor 2. Viewer - This is a mock-up of what your app will look like. Components - Each component can be renamed or deleted here. Designer Layout Palette - Drag the component that you want to use in your app, into the centre. Properties - Edit the settings for each component. Media - Upload images and sound here before they can be used in your app. Blocks Layout Viewer - This is space for you to drag blocks to make things happen. Blocks - Drag the code block that you want to use into the centre. The blocks connect together like in Scratch. Warnings - Any errors with your code will be displayed here. Backpack - Drag code into to backpack to store it for later. KS3 Home Tasks 1 & 2

  • All Programming Topics | CSNewbs

    All Programming Topics Python HTML Greenfoot Assembly Language App Inventor 2

  • Unit 1 - Fundamentals of IT - Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    OCR Cambridge Technicals IT Level 3 Unit 1: Fundamentals of IT These pages are based on content from the OCR Cambridge Technicals 2016 Level 3 IT specification . This website is in no way affiliated with OCR . LO1 (Computer Hardware ) 1.1 - Computer Hardware 1.2 - Computer Components 1.3 - Types of Computer System 1.4 - Connectivity 1.5 - Communication Hardware 1.6 - Hardware Troubleshooting 1.7 - Units of Measurement 1.8 & 1.9 - Number Systems & Conversion LO2 (Computer Software ) 2.1 - Types of Software 2.2 - Applications Software 2.3 - Utility Software 2.4 - Operating Systems 2.5 - Communication Methods 2.6 - Software Troubleshooting 2.7 - Protocols LO3 (Networks & Systems ) 3.1 - Server Types 3.2 - Virtualisation 3.3 - Network Characteristics 3.4 - Connection Methods 3.5 - Business Systems LO4 ( Employability & Communication ) 4.1 - Communication Skills 4.2 - Communication Technology 4.3 - Personal Attributes 4.4 - Ready for Work 4.5 - Job Roles 4.6 & 4.7 - Bodies & Certification LO5 (Issues & Security ) 5.1 - Ethical Issues 5.2 - Operational Issues 5.3 - Threats 5.4 - Physical Security 5.5 - Digital Security 5.6 - Data & System Disposal

bottom of page