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  • 3.1 - Network Characteristics - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.1: Network Characteristics Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a network? A network is more than one computer system connected together allowing for communication and sharing of resources . There are many benefits but also some drawbacks to using a network compared to having an unconnected ('standalone' ) computer: Advantages of Networks Easily share files , software and hardware between computers. Disadvantages of Networks There is an initial cost because network devices like routers are required . Larger companies will need to buy and maintain a server . Log in from any connected computer and access your data and files. A network manager / administrator might need to be employed to maintain the network . An administrator can monitor network activity and control security settings. Data from computers on the network can be automatically backed up on central storage. Security breaches are more likely and malware , such as worms, can spread quickly across the network. If the web server fails , all connected computers won't be able to access files or log on . Network Types Networks can be split into different types , usually categorised by their geographical distance apart and the area that they serve. Local Area Network A local area network (LAN ) has computer systems situated geographically close together , usually within the same building or small site , like a school or office . Wide Area Network A wide area network (WAN ) has computer systems situated geographically distant to each other, possibly across a country or even across the world . The internet is an example of a WAN that spans the globe. Personal Area Network A PAN is a personal network for an individual , such as a photographer connecting a smartphone, desktop computer and printer together. Metropolitan Area Network A MAN is larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN and typically covers a relatively large area like a university campus, town or city . Virtual Private Network A VPN allows for a secure and encrypted connection to a public network like the internet. It is often used to protect an individual's privacy by concealing their real location. Wired & Wireless Networks Wired Connections Wireless Connections Wireless connections, such as WiFi or Bluetooth , use no cables but require a wireless network interface card (WNIC ). Wireless connections generally have a slower speed and can be affected by the computer's distance from the wireless router as well as obstacles like walls or bad weather. Wired connections use physical cables , such as copper or fibre optic wires , and require a network interface card (NIC ) to connect to a network. These wired connections use a wired connection protocol - most commonly Ethernet . Restricted Movement Faster More Secure NIC Required Freedom of Movement Slower Less Secure WNIC Required Q uesto's Q uestions 3.1 - Network Characteristics: ​ 1. A retirement home for the elderly is considering installing a LAN , give 3 benefits and 3 drawbacks they might find of using a network . [6 ] ​ 2a. Describe the difference between a LAN and WAN . [2 ] 2b. Give an example of how a LAN and a WAN could each be used . [ 2 ] ​ 3 . Explain the differences between a PAN , MAN and VPN . [ 3 ] ​ 4. For each of the scenarios below, state which network type would be most suitable : a. The IT rooms of a secondary school . [ 1 ] b. A study in a house with a desktop and printer. [ 1 ] c. Using online banking when abroad on a holiday to stay secure . [ 1 ] d. A large technology company with offices across Europe . [ 1 ] e. Council offices with several locations across Manchester . [ 1 ] ​ 5. Briefly compare wired and wireless networks . [ 8 ] 2.2 - Boolean Algebra 3.2 - Data Packets & Switching Theory Topics

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 4.1 - Communication Skills | CSNewbs

    4.1 - Communication Skills Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 Communication skills are vital for anybody working within the IT industry. Employees will need to communicate with other members of their team and with those who encounter issues with their computer systems. Interpersonal Skills Communication is not just through speaking to another person, behaviour is also important. Employees should sit up straight in their chairs to show interest and eye contact should be maintained when speaking to another person or listening in a meeting. It is important to speak clearly so that others can understand what you are trying to say. Verbal Communication Employees should know when to use informal and formal language appropriately. For example, formal language should be used in meetings as it is a work environment . ​ Employees should think carefully about when to use technical terms . Technical terminology should be used when discussing issues with technicians but simplified explanations should be given to customers who may be inexperienced with their systems. Questioning Techniques Questioning is used to uncover problems in order to solve them . Closed questions will be direct and prompt a short, often one-word answer, such as "How many times have you tried to log in?". ​ Open questions don't have an obvious answer and may elicit an opinion , such as "Why are you using Internet Explorer instead of Google Chrome?". ​ Avoid leading questions - where you expect a certain response from the answerer, such as "Is the system always this slow?" Written Communication Again this form of communication can be formal - such as a letter to apply for a job - or informal - like sending a text or instant message to a team member. ​ There are a number of considerations to take before deciding whether communication should be formal or informal. For example, if the communication is between peers or external agencies (such as other companies or customers), any policies the organisation has in place and whether the communication will be legally recorded (such as saving all email correspondence). Barriers to Communication There are several reasons why a messages between people may be received incorrectly . ​ For example noise , language (not necessarily different languages but using technical terms) and physical barriers (i.e. learning difficulties or disabilities such as deafness). Another barrier is distraction - an email may be delayed because an employee is distracted by social media or other co-workers. Phones should also be turned off or to silent during meetings. Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1 - Communication Skills: 1. Describe 3 interpersonal actions that an employee should follow when speaking or listening to other team members. [ 3 ] 2. Explain when an employee should use technical terms and when they should simplify their explanations . [ 4 ] ​ 3. Describe the difference between closed , open and leading questions , giving an example of each. [6 ] ​ 4. Describe 3 things that should be considered when deciding between formal or informal written communication . [3 ] ​ 5. Describe 3 different barriers to successful communication . [3 ] 3.5 - Business Systems Topic List 4.2 - Communication Technology

  • Python | Section 7 Practice Tasks | CSNewbs

    top Python - Section 7 Practice Tasks Task One Example solution: Create a program with three different subroutines (procedures ). One subroutine asks the user their name and prints a response. The second asks for their age and prints a response. The third asks for their favourite colour and prints a response. Remember to write subroutines before the main program. Task Two Create a program that asks a user to input the length of a side in a square. Write a function that takes this value and returns it to be printed. Example solution: Task Three Example solution: Create a program that takes 3 inputs from the user – a name, a villain and a place. Write a function that outputs a story using the user’s answers. Task Four Create a calculator program that uses four different subroutines (add, subtract, multiply and divide). In the main program ask the user to make a choice of which operator to use and then to enter two numbers. Keep looping until the user types stop. ​ Use the 'Using Subroutines as a Menu' section in the 7b to help you. Example solution: ⬅ 7b - Functions 8a - Using Lists ➡

  • Python | 8b - 2D Lists | CSNewbs

    top Python 8b - 2D Lists Creating a List with Multiple Dimensions Lists can be given another dimension to hold data that is related to each other . ​ A scenario: Three students have taken two Chemistry tests, and their teacher has recorded the results in a 2-dimensional array (note that Python does not use arrays but uses lists instead): To create this in Python: Printing a 2D List To print the whole list, use a for loop to cycle through each record. ​ I have altered the normal i variable to be 'record', so it is more descriptive: Use the index number to print a specific record . Look at the table above and remember that Python starts counting at 0 so Edward is record 0, Bella 1 and Jacob 2: To print a specific data value, you need to define the record number and then the data index . ​ When using 2D lists, the first value is the row, and the second value is the column . Use the table at the very top to help you visualise this: Practice Task 1 Use the introduction at the top to help you create a 2D list with three friends in the first column, their age in the second column and their favourite colour in the third column. ​ Print the whole list. ​ Then print just the second person's information. Example solution: Searching Through a 2D List To search through a multi-dimensional list then you need to search through each record and then each data element for a specific value: Practice Task 2 Use the 2D list that you created in the first practice task. ​ Ask the user to enter a name. ​ Search through the list and print the record of that person's name. Example solution: ⬅ 8a - Using Lists 8 c - Dictionaries ➡

  • 8.4 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    8.4: Sorting & Searching Algorithms Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Merge Sort Merge sort is a sorting algorithm based on the idea of ‘divide and conquer ’. A merge sort divides a list into half , again and again until each data item is separate . Then the items are combined in the same way as they were divided , but now in the correct order . When the individual lists are all merged together as one list again, then the data is in order and the algorithm will end . Bubble Sort This algorithm is based on the comparison of adjacent data elements . ​ Data elements are swapped if they are not in the correct order . A bubble sort is not suitable for large sets of data. Linear Search A linear search is the most simple search algorithm. ​ Each data item is searched in order from the first value to the last as if they were all laid out in a line . The list does not have to be in any order before it is searched . This search is also known as a sequential search because the list is searched in a sequence from start to end. For large lists , this search is not very efficient . Binary Search A binary search is a much more efficient searching algorithm as it generally searches through fewer data and is often much quicker - especially for large data sets. In a binary search, the middle point of the data is selected with each iteration and many data items can be ignored. However, the list of data must already be sorted in order before a binary search can take place. Q uesto's Q uestions 8.3 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms: ​ Linear Search Explain step-by-step how the number 8 would be found in the following list using a linear search : 12, 5, 3, 2, 8, 19, 14, 6 [4 ] ​ Binary Search Explain step-by-step how the number 2 would be found in the following list using a binary search : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 [6 ] ​ Merge Sort Explain step-by-step how a merge sort would sort the following list of numbers: 4, 8, 5, 1, 3, 6, 7, 2 [6 ] ​ Bubble Sort Explain step-by-step how a bubble sort would sort the following list of numbers: 3, 2, 6, 4, 1, 4 [6 ] Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube Watch on YouTube 8.3 - Writing Algorithms Theory Topics 8.5 - Validation & Verification

  • 4.1a - Data Types & Character Sets | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 4.1a - Data Types & Character Sets Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 4.1a - Data Types & Character Sets: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 3.4b - HTML, CSS & JavaScript Theory Topics 4.1b - Denary, Binary & Hexadecimal

  • Eduqas GCSE Topic List | CSNewbs

    Eduqas / WJEC GCSE Computer Science These pages are based on the Eduqas GCSE Computer Science 2020 specification . The content can also be used by students studying WJEC GCSE Computer Science in Wales . This website is in no way affiliated with Eduqas / WJEC . 1. Hardware 1.1 - The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 1.2 - The FDE Cycle 1.3 - Primary Storage 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.5 - Performance 1.6 - Additional Hardware 2. Logical Operators & Boolean 2.1 - Logical Operators 2.2 - Boolean Algebra 3. Networks & Security 3.1 - Network Characteristics 3.2 - Data Packets & Switching 3.3 - Network Topology 3.4 - Network Hardware & Routing 3.5 - Protocols 3.6 - 7-Layer OSI Model 3.7 - The Internet 3.8 - Cyber Threats 3.9 - Protection Against Threats 4. Data 4.1 - Number Systems 4.2 - Signed Binary 4.3 - Binary Calculations 4.4 - Arithmetic Shift 4.5 - Character Sets & Data Types 4.6 - Graphical Representation 4.7 - Sound Representation 4.8 - Compression 5. Data Organisation 5.1 - Data Structures & File Design 6. Operating Systems 6.1 - Operating Systems 6.2 - Utility Software 7. Principles of Programming 7.1 - Language Levels 8. Algorithms & Constructs 8.1 - Programming Principles 8.2 - Understanding Algorithms 8.3 - Writing Algorithms 8.4 - Sorting & Searching Algorithms 8.5 - Validation & Verification 9. Software Development 9.1 - IDE Tools 10. Program Construction 10.1 - Translators 10.2 - Stages of Compilation 10.3 - Programming Errors 11. Technological Issues 11.1 - Impacts of Technology 11.2 - Legislation Component 2 (Programming Exam) Python Removed content from the 2016 Specification

  • 2.4b - Assembly Language | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 2.4b: Assembly Language Specification: A-Level 2015 An instruction set is a list of all the instructions that a CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle . ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) and more complicated CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ). Instruction Sets This page is still being updated. Graphical Processing Unit What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Multicore & Parallel Systems What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is temporary storage for frequently accessed data . ​ Cache memory is very quick to access because it is closer to the CPU than other types of memory like RAM . Q uesto's Q uestions 2.4b - Assembly Language: ​ 1. What is cache memory ? [ 2 ] ​ 2.4a - Programming & Pseudocode Theory Topics 2.4c - Object-Oriented Language

  • 6.1a - Impacts of Technology - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    6.1a: Impacts of Technology Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 What are the issues created by technology? As the use of computers and technological devices continues to rise every year, this increase brings with it a range of different types of issues . Categories of issues described on this page include: ​ Cultural issues Environmental issues Ethical issues Legal & Privacy issues Cultural Issues Culture relates to society and how different parts of the world vary in terms of computer and internet usage . The Digital Divide This term relates to the gap between those people who have access to modern digital technology (such as computers and the internet) and those who have limited access . 'Limited access' could be devices at home or shared devices or having lower-performance (cheaper) computers and low-speed internet connections. ​ The digital divide can be seen in different ways , such as: People in cities vs. People in rural areas . Younger people vs. Elderly people. Developed countries vs. Developing countries. The digital divide is an important ethical issue because digital technologies have led to numerous international benefits including boosted growth , improved product delivery , enhanced communication and increased opportunities . However, this impact is uneven and these positive impacts are mostly occurring in technologically-advanced regions such as North America , Western Europe and Japan . Regions like some nations in Africa and Central Asia have limited digital infrastructure and government instability , leading to poor internet speeds , high costs and limited resources . ​ Discussion Points: What do you think can be done to bridge the digital divide? Whose job is it to bridge the gap? Who will pay for the technology? Changes to Work The internet , the development of new technologies such as cloud storage and increased video communication have transformed the way that many businesses operate across the world. Staff may be able to work from home or access documents collaboratively outside of the traditional workplace, such as cafes or on public transport. ​ Some jobs have moved abroad to save costs, such as help centres for online issues. Tasks can be outsourced to freelancers in other countries where people are content to be paid less for their time and services. For example, some companies will hire temporary web developers from countries such as India to work for them for a lower salary than local workers. ​ Another change to work that technology has brought is the loss of jobs , especially low-skilled jobs such as factory workers that have seen their roles replaced by technology and automation . However, technology has also created millions of new jobs , including installing and maintaining the machines that replace other roles. Environmental Issues Environmental issues concern the natural world and the negative effects of producing , using and discarding computer systems and devices. Energy and Material Consumption In the past 30 years, the number of technological devices has increased astronomically and thousands of new devices are manufactured each day . These devices need to be assembled using a range of materials , including plastics , metals and some rarer elements and need a considerable amount of electrical power to run. Certain systems like web servers and data centres must be powered on all day , every day, which uses a large amount of energy . Pollution and Waste Generating the electricity to power computers creates pollution - an average PC could require up to 50% more energy per year than a fridge. Computers are difficult to recycle and discarded components can lead to land, water and air pollution due to harmful materials , such as lead and mercury , leaking into the environment. ​ Smartphone trends are also negative for the environment as new devices are released yearly , with minor upgrades that people buy to appear fashionable and up-to-date. To lessen the environmental impact, people should reuse and recycle their devices. Ethical Issues Ethics relates to what is considered right or wrong . Often this is subjective - people may have differing opinions on the issue. Drones Uses of drones: Filming and photography for television, movies and special events. Monitoring pollution levels in the atmosphere. Tracking and monitoring wildlife , such as rhino populations in Africa. Disaster zone response , such as searching for survivors following an earthquake. Delivery companies are developing drones to quickly deliver goods across cities. Drones are used by the military to target sites in other countries, such as American soldiers deploying surveillance drones in Syria. ​ Discussion Points: Should you need a licence to buy and fly a drone? Should drones be used to monitor the public? Like flying CCTV? Should drones be used to deliver items? Like Amazon packages? If a drone hits a plane and it crashes, what should the punishment be? A drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV ) that is remotely operated and can be used for a wide range of purposes. Self-Driving Cars Self-driving cars (also known as autonomous vehicles ) are currently in the development and testing stage with companies like Tesla and Amazon. Benefits of self-driving cars include: In theory, driving will be safer because cars are less likely to make mistakes that humans do and they can’t become distracted or tired . Self-driving cars should be more fuel-efficient because they take the most direct route to destinations and do not get lost. ‘Drivers’ in the car can perform other tasks instead of driving, such as work or planning. Autonomous vehicles could include trucks and vans to automate the delivery and freight industries . Trucks could drive overnight to deliver goods whereas currently, human drivers must take breaks every few hours. Drawbacks of self-driving cars include: Cars could still crash as code and software processes may fail. The technology is still in development and will be very expensive for the first few years when self-driving cars are available to purchase. Jobs may be lost such as delivery and truck drivers whose vehicles are equipped with self-driving technology. Other industries like motorway services and hotels may also be affected. ​ Discussion Points: Would you trust a car to drive itself? Who is to blame if a self-driving car crashes? The car maker? The people in the car? The software writers? What should happen to the people whose jobs are taken by self-driving vehicles? Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence (AI ) is the act of computers replacing humans to analyse data and make decisions . In recent years AI has become more common in the home and on devices like smartphones; assistants such as Siri and Alexa are prime examples of modern home AI. AI Chatbots like ChatGPT have become more popular in recent years but have lead to issues such as plagiarism , misinformation and breaking copyright laws . The weather today is cloudy. Benefits of AI include: Processes are sped up as computers can analyse large amounts of data much quicker than a human. AI can be used when a human is unavailable , such as using a symptom checker on the internet for a minor illness rather than booking and waiting for a doctor. Repetitive or time-consuming tasks can instead be completed by a computer , such as searching and sorting scientific data or generating ideas , images or audio from a prompt . Drawbacks of AI include: AI can store and process a lot of personal data , especially personal assistants like Alexa which are always listening for ‘wake words’. This data can be viewed by the company that develops it and could be hacked by attackers. AI is programmed by humans and mistakes in code could have disastrous consequences if the AI is used to make important decisions , such as military deployment. AI GPT tools like ChatGPT can give incorrect results , may use copyrighted material in their response and students may use it to submit work that is not their own . ​ Discussion Points: If a robot harms a human who is to blame? The robot? The programmer? The manufacturer? Us? Would you trust a walking, talking robot assistant in your home? Should ChatGPT be banned in schools or can it be helpful? Should AI make decisions for us? Legal & Privacy Issues Legal and privacy issues regard laws that have been introduced by the UK government to protect data, systems and networks from unauthorised access . See 11.2 for explanations about important computing legislation in the UK. Loss of Privacy & Hacking There has been a lot of criticism in the last few years about how internet companies and governments are using personal data to invade privacy and track civilians . Facebook was involved in a scandal with using personal data for reasons that were not the original intention. In reverse, WhatsApp and Apple have been criticised for encrypting messages sent by terrorists that police have been unable to track and read. Every week a new company seems to announce that its data has been hacked . Attackers are constantly using botnets and infected systems to crack poorly secured databases and attempting to phish individuals for usernames and passwords. In the past few years, major hacking breaches include Sony, Yahoo and TalkTalk. ​ Discussion Points: Should the UK government be able to see the websites you have visited in the last year? What should happen if a major company is hacked and bank details are stolen? Should they be fined? Pay customers? Prison? Should WhatsApp allow authorities to access encrypted messages? What if they know a terrorist is using it to communicate? Should the UK debate privacy laws before they go into place? Online Crime Unlawfully obtaining personal information and using it for identity theft or fraud . Harassment and threatening others on social media or private messages; blackmail . Cyber attacks are more common - see 3.8 for information about DOS attacks , IP spoofing , SQL injection and more. Sharing copyrighted material such as television programmes, music and video games. Distributing prohibited material such as drugs or weapons on the dark web. ​ See 6.1b for explanations about different laws that have been created to tackle online crime . The increased popularity of the internet and the rising number of users has led to a wave of online crime , taking many different forms, including:​ Q uesto's Q uestions 6.1a - Impacts of Technology: ​ Cultural Impacts 1a. What is the digital divide ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe 2 examples of how the digital divide can be seen . [ 2 ] ​ 2. Describe in detail 3 ways that technology has changed the way people work . [9 ] ​ Environmental Impacts 1. Describe the different ways that the increasing use of technology negatively impacts the environment . [ 5 ] ​ Ethical Impacts 1a. What is a drone ? [1 ] 1b. Make a list of all of the positive impacts and the negative impacts of using drones . You should have at least 3 on each side. [ 6 ] ​ 2. Describe 2 benefits of using self-driving cars and 2 negative consequences . [4 ] ​ 3. Describe how artificial intelligence can be used for good . [ 4 ] ​ Legal & Privacy Impacts 1. A hack on a bank has occurred. Describe what you think the impacts would be on the following groups of people: a. The customers . b. The bank managers . c. The general public . [ 6 ] ​ 2. Describe 4 different types of online crime . [ 8 ] 5.2 - Utility Software Theory Topics 6.1b - Legislation

  • All Programming Topics | CSNewbs

    All Programming Topics Python HTML Greenfoot Assembly Language App Inventor 2

  • 1.1 - Computational Thinking - OCR GCSE (J277 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.1: Computational Thinking Exam Board: OCR Specification: J277 There are three key components to computational thinking (smart problem solving): Abstraction is when you ignore unnecessary information and focus only on the important facts . ​ Abstraction is used because it simplifies a problem to make it less complex . This makes it more straightforward to understand the problem and create a solution . Decomposition is when you break a problem down into smaller tasks so that it is easier to solve . ​ Each individual problem can be separately tested and solved . Decomposition also enables different people to work on the different parts of a larger problem that can later be recombined to produce a full solution . Algorithmic thinking is the final stage as logical steps are followed to solve the problem . ​ The problem is broken down using decomposition into smaller problems . The required data and relevant data structures are considered using abstraction . Q uesto's Q uestions 1.1 - Computational Thinking: ​ 1. What does the term 'abstraction ' mean? Why is it important ? [2 ] 2. What is meant by ' decomposition '? Why is it important ? [ 2 ] 3. What is algorithmic thinking ? What does it involve? [3 ] Theory Topics 1.2 - Designing Algorithms

  • HTML Guide 2 - Essential Tags | CSNewbs

    2. Creating Essential Tags HTML Guide Watch on YouTube: What is a tag ? HTML uses tags to define the content of a webpage . ​ A tag uses angle brackets - they look just like my teeth... ​ Some examples of tags are and and ​ ​ ​ Most tags have a start tag and an end tag . The actual content is written in between the tags . For example : ​ The p tag is used to write a paragraph ​ Notice that the end tag uses a forward slash . < > Essential Tags There are three tags that are essential for every HTML web page : ​ - This tag declares the start and the end of your html web page. - The head is the part of the web page that the user will not see. - The body holds all of the content of the web page (text, images, video etc.) ​ Don't forget to use backslash for the end tags : / Use the image on the right to add the three essential tags (and their end tags) to your document. Now it is time to add something we can actually see! Text tags are up next. 1. Setup HTML Guide 3. Text Tags

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