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  • 1.5 - Performance - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.5: Performance Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + The system is affected by main factors: performance of a computer three Cache Memory: Size & Levels What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is for . temporary storage frequently accessed data ​ Cache memory is because it is than other types of memory like . very quick to access closer to the CPU RAM What are the 3 levels of cache memory? is the smallest level ( ) but it is also the . Level 1 cache less than a megabyte fastest is than level 1 ( ) but slightly slower. Level 2 cache larger up to 8 megabytes is located of the CPU core which makes it than the first two levels but it is much ( ). Level 3 cache outside slower larger up to 50 megabytes How does cache memory work? ​ When the , it looks 1 cache, and . If the data has been , this is called a ' '. If the data is then the CPU searches in which takes - this is called a ' '. CPU searches for data first in level then level 2 then level 3 found cache hit not found RAM instead more time cache miss How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is , meaning that it can provide . closer to the CPU than RAM data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because can be stored and . repeatedly used instructions accessed faster ​ will a computer's performance as data can be . Larger level 1 and level 2 cache sizes improve accessed extremely quickly What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is so most computers only have a . costly, small amount ​ Multiple will result in (delay) as information is accessed which is further away from the CPU. cache misses data latency from RAM Clock Speed What is clock speed? is the measure of . Clock speed how quickly a CPU can process instructions ​ Clock speed is . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of . measured in Gigahertz (GHz) 3.5 GHz This means it can perform . 3.5 billion cycles a second How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in because . better performance more instructions can be processed each second How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A is a (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to . core complete set of CPU components perform its own FDE cycle ​ A has within the same CPU. multi-core CPU more than one set of components How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can , a processor can and a . execute one instruction at a time dual-core execute two instructions, quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously ​ Therefore, a will have a because it can . computer with more cores higher performance process more instructions at once What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If to finish processing, at all. one core is waiting for another core performance may not increase ​ , so it will on a multi-core computer. Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores not run any quicker uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels What is ? [ 1a. cache memory 2 ] Describe the of , including the and of each level. [ 1b. three levels cache memory storage size relative speed 6 ] 1c. Describe what is meant by a ' cache hit ' and a ' cache miss '. [ 2 ] Describe that 1d. two ways more c will mean . [ ache memory performance is higher 4 ] Explain why only have a memory. [ 1e. most computers small amount of cache 1 ] Clock Speed What is ? What is it in? [ 2a. clock speed measured 2 ] Explain how a . [ 2b. higher clock speed improves performance 2 ] Explain the terms ' ' and ' ' and explain the of both on the of a computer. [ 2c. overclocking underclocking effects performance 4 ] ​ Number of Cores What is a ? [ 3a. core 2 ] Explain why a should have a than a . [ 3b. quad-core processor higher performance dual-core processor 3 ] Explain two reasons why having the . [ 3c. more cores doesn't necessarily mean performance will be better 2 ] 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.6 - Additional Hardware Theory Topics

  • 1.6 - Buses & Instruction Sets - Eduqas (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.6: Buses & Instruction Sets Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + Buses within a computer system along called . Data is transferred pathways buses ​ There are of bus: three types Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus Sends a of where data is stored.​​ The address is sent in the FDE cycle. memory address from the CPU to RAM Transfers between components. Data is sent . data both ways Sends from the to other components of the system. are sent back to the CPU. control signals control unit Status signals An is a that a . instruction set list of all the instructions CPU can process as part of the FDE cycle ​ CPUs can have different sets of instructions that they can perform based on their function. The two most common instruction sets are the simpler ( ) and more complicated ( ). RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer Instruction Sets Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) Complexity RISC has than CISC and is therefore slower for carrying out complex commands but fewer instructions . quick for basic tasks CISC has available and can therefore perform more complex instructions . complicated tasks Cost RISC is generally cheaper to mass produce because less circuitry is required for the smaller instruction set. CISC CPUs are generally more expensive because they require more circuitry to operate. Power RISC CPUs are designed to use less power and run without dedicated cooling systems (like fans) so that they can be used in devices like smartphones . Because CISC CPUs require more circuitry this means that they generate more heat and may require a fan . CISC CPUs therefore are commonly used in desktop computers . Clock Speed RISC CPUs run at lower clock speeds than CISC CPUs. They can perform simpler tasks more quickly than CISC, but are generally not used to carry out complex instructions . CISC CPUs run at higher clock speeds than RISC CPUs. They can perform complex tasks more quickly than RISC. uesto's uestions Q Q 1.6 - Buses & Instruction Sets: ​ Buses 1. For each describe what its is and if it is (both ways) or (one way) : type of bus role bi- uni- directional Address Bus [ a. 2 ] b. Data Bus [ 2 ] c. Control Bus [ 2 ] ​ ​ Instruction Sets What do and stand for? [ 1. RISC CISC 2 ] Explain (you must mention​ , , and ). [ ] 2. four differences between RISC & CISC Complexity Cost Power Clock Speed 8 Suggest why a device like a uses instead of CISC. [ 3. tablet RISC ] 2 1.5 - Performance Theory Topics 1.7 - Additional Hardware

  • 1.3 - Access & Devices | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.3 - Access & Storage Devices Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Handheld Devices Examples of handheld devices: are small, light and possibly can be worn on the human body. These devices are very and easy to transport but their small size the space for a powerful processor or high memory capacity. Handheld devices are becoming more powerful over time with extra features, storage options and network connectivity. Handheld devices portable restricts ​ Advantages: Light and portable so they can be easily carried on a person or in a pocket . Runs on battery power so do not need to be plugged into a power source (unless to charge) allowing for freedom of movement . ​ Disadvantages: due to small size and . Low processing power no cooling system which may not last for long. Relies on battery power More likely to be . lost, damaged or stolen Generally and . small memory / storage capacity low versatility Smartphone Small Tablet eReader Smartwatch Portable Devices Examples of portable devices: are larger and more powerful than handheld devices and can be carried easily in a bag. and are the main examples of portable devices. Portable devices Laptops larger tablets ​ ​ Advantages: Light and portable so they can be easily transported in a laptop bag or small rucksack. Runs on battery power so they can work without a power outlet , such as to complete work on a train or in a library. More powerful and versatile than handheld devices. ​ Disadvantages: and than fixed devices like desktops. Lower processing power smaller memory / storage capacity which may only be a few hours. Reliant on their battery power Laptop Large Tablet Fixed Devices Examples of fixed devices: are bulky devices that require a . The most common example of a fixed device is a which has a higher processing power and storage capacity than handheld and portable devices. Fixed devices constant power connection desktop computer ​ Advantages: Desktop computers have the highest processing power of commercially available home / work computers and contain sufficient cooling systems to maintain temperature. Desktops and games consoles have large storage capacities and can be upgraded / expanded to even larger sizes. Desktop computers are very versatile and are powerful enough to be used for thousands of different purposes, from basic word processing and web browsing to server roles and data mining. ​ Disadvantages: and cannot be transported whilst on. Reliant on a power outlet . May require like a monitor. Heavy and difficult to move additional components Typically than handheld and portable devices. more expensive Desktop Games Console Smart TV Shared Devices A allows to access data at the . is the most common example of a shared device and is used by individuals, schools and businesses around the world through services such as Google Drive, Apple's iCloud and Microsoft's One Drive. A is a dedicated building that contains computer systems - Facebook uses data centres across the globe so that their social media service can be available to users every second of the day. were explained in . shared device multiple users same time Cloud storage data centre Database servers Unit 1 section 3.1 ​ Advantages: A ccessible by multiple users at the same time . For example, the database server can be accessed by employees of a bank simultaneously. Data centres allow online services to run all hours of the day and year . For example, Google uses data centres across the world to ensure their services can be accessed all of the time. Cloud storage frees up physical space for users as the storage is located (usually) on third-party servers. Cloud storage devices allow such as clients or staff members to or (outside of the office). authorised users access information work remotely ​ Disadvantages: Shared devices are . If a connection is lost, to the device will be . reliant on stable network connections access affected Setting up shared devices within an organisation requires , especially for companies establishing their own cloud storage or data centre. technical knowledge Examples of shared devices: Cloud Storage Data Centre Database Server uesto's uestions Q Q 1.3 - Access & Storage Devices: ​ Identify the that the following devices fit into: 1. type of device Laptop a. Cloud storage b. Desktop computer c. Smartphone [ ] d. 4 ​ Describe the of using of storage devices. 2. advantages and disadvantages each of the 4 types Handheld devices [ ] a. 6 Portable devices [ ] b. 6 Fixed devices [ ] c. 6 Shared devices [ ] d. 6 ​ For the following scenarios explain which (not type) which would be suitable. You must also . 3. specific device justify your choice Working on a spreadsheet on a train before work. [ ] a. 4 Taking a video of a penalty in a football match to upload to Twitter. [ ] b. 4 Working on a file with team members located across the country. [ ] c. 4 Playing Civilization VI on highest settings whilst listening to rock climbing podcasts in a separate tab. [ ] d. 4 1.2 - Storage Media Topic List 1.4 - Internet Connections

  • 1.2 - The FDE Cycle - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.2: The FDE Cycle Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + The is performed by the millions of times every second. Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) cycle CPU ​ This cycle is how the for each program or service that requires its attention. CPU processes data and instructions Important Registers A is a for in the . register small storage space temporary data CPU ​ Each register has a . There are three essential registers used in the specific role FDE cycle : Program Counter (PC) A register that tracks the RAM address of the next instruction to be fetched . Memory Address Register (MAR) A register that tracks the RAM address of data that is currently being accessed . Current Instruction Register (CIR) A register that stores the instruction that has been fetched from RAM , and is about to be decoded or executed . Fetch - Decode - Execute Cycle The essential idea of the FDE cycle is that , to be (understood) and . instructions are fetched from RAM decoded executed (processed) by the CPU 1. The ( ) register displays the of the . Program Counter PC address in RAM next instruction to be processed This value is the ( ). copied into Memory Address Register MAR 0054 2. The register is . PC increased by 1 ​ This for the to be fetched. prepares the CPU next instruction 0055 3. The CPU which held . checks the address in RAM matches the address in the MAR 0054 4. The is ( ). instruction in RAM transferred to the Current Instruction Register CIR CIR 5. The is (understood) and (processed) by the most - such as the for a calculation. instruction in the CIR decoded executed appropriate component ALU 6. The by returning to the and checking the program counter for the address of the . cycle repeats first step next instruction uesto's uestions Q Q 1.2 - The Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) Cycle: ​ . What is the ? [ 1 purpose of the registers 2 ] ​ . Describe : 2 the purpose of each register The [ a. Program Counter (PC) 1 ] The b. Memory Address Register (MAR) [ 1 ] The c. Current Instruction Register (CIR) [ 1 ] ​ Draw a diagram of the . [ 3. six steps of the Fetch - Decode - Execute cycle 6 ] These are not the only registers but the main three used as part of the FDE cycle. Other registers exist, such as the accumulator , which stores the result of calculations made by the ALU . 1.1 - The CPU Theory Topics 1.3 - Primary Storage

  • 10.2 - Legislation - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    10.2: Legislation Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + Data Protection Act (2018) In 2018 the European Union introduced ( ) to of data for people in the EU. The UK matched this by updating the Data Protection Act introduced in 1998 to become the . GDPR General Data Protection Regulation protect the privacy Data Protection Act (2018) ​ This act that is stored on computers and processed by organisations. protects the data of individuals ​ How the Data Protection Act works: ​ Each person who has their data stored is known as a . An employee within an organisation must be appointed as a and it is they who are responsible for . data subject data controller registering with the Information Commissioner The Information Commissioner is the person in the UK who is responsible for , most significantly the Data Protection Act. managing several laws When registering with the Information Commissioner, the organisation's on exactly: data controller must be clear they are collecting, What information it is being collected, Why What the data will be . used for ​ The six principles of the Data Protection Act state that data must be: 1. Collected lawfully and processed fairly. 4. Data must be accurate and up-to-date. 2. Only used for the reasons specified. Principles of the Data Protection Act (2018) 5. Data must not be stored for longer than necessary, 3. Data must be relevant and not excessive. 6. Data must be stored and processed securely. Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) This act (often shortened to RIPA ) was introduced in response to the increase in both criminal and terrorist activities on the internet, it is used to monitor and access online communication of suspected criminals . If criminal activity is suspected by an individual then this act grants the following powers : ​ Internet Service Providers (ISPs) must provide access to the suspect's online communication , such as emails or social media. Locked or encrypted data may be accessed such as online messages. ISPs could install surveillance equipment or software to track the suspect's online activity . Surveillance may take place to physically track the suspect , e.g. in private vans or by undercover officers in public spaces. Access must be granted to personal information . ​ This act became controversial as its use widened and local councils were using it for minor offences - a Scottish council used the act to monitor dog barking and a council in Cumbria gathered video evidence about who was feeding pigeons . The act has since been changed to only allow the surveillance of crime suspects . Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) This act makes it a of the creator or the copyright holder. This can refer to text, images, music, videos or software. criminal offence to copy work that is not your own without the permission Owning the copyright of an image might not prevent others from copying and using it but this act means that the owner can . bring legal proceedings in court to those who have stolen their work However, it is difficult to trace who has stolen work once it has been uploaded to the internet and copies can easily spread, especially television shows and movies. ​ This act specifically prohibits the following actions: to . Making copies of copyrighted material sell to others (except for personal use). Importing and downloading illegally copied material to have a . Distributing enough copyrighted material noticeable effect on the copyright holder , as part of a business. Possessing equipment used to copy copyrighted material Codes of Conduct One way that organisations try to ensure that staff are and is to . This is or they may be punished, such as a temporary ban from the network or being fired. There are two types of codes of conduct: held to professional standards display appropriate behaviour create a code of conduct a set of rules or requirements that employees must follow Formal codes of conduct are a set of written rules that clearly state expected behaviour , such as what employees can access online at work . Schools may have this too, and you might have to sign a document at the start of the year before you can use the computers. Informal codes of conduct are used by small organisations where there might not be a written set of rules , but newer employees follow the habits and expectations of senior members of staff. This is harder to monitor but provides a more relaxed working environment. uesto's uestions Q Q 10.2 - Legislation: ​ 1a. State the 6 principles of the Data Protection Act (2018) . [ 6 ] 1b. Explain how the Data Protection Act works . In your answer, you should include definitions of a data subject , the data controller and the Data Commissioner . [ 6 ] ​ [ 2. Describe the 4 principles of the Computer Misuse Act (1990) . 3 ] ​ 3. Describe the purpose of the Freedom of Information Act (1990) and state an example of a freedom request . [ 3 ] ​ 4a. What is the purpose of RIPA (2000) ? [ 2 ] 4b. Describe 3 actions that RIPA (2000) allows the government / police to do . [ 3 ] ​ 5a. What is the purpose of the Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) ? [ 2 ] 5b. Describe 3 actions that CDPA (1988) prohibits . [ 3 ] ​ 6a. What is the purpose of a code of conduct ? [ 2 ] 6b. Describe the difference between formal and informal codes of conduct . [ 2 ] Computer Misuse Act (1990) This act was introduced as . The act attempts to stop and . Breaking any of the three principles could result in but only if it can be proved it was done and not by accident. computers became cheaper and more common at home and work punish those who use computers inappropriately fines and a jail sentence on purpose ​ The ( ) includes :​ Computer Misuse Act 1990 three main principles 1. No unauthorised access to data. ​ Example: Hacking a computer system. 2. No unauthorised access to data that could be used for further illegal activities. ​ Example: Accessing personal data to use as blackmail or identity theft. 3. No unauthorised modification of data. ​ ​ Example: Spreading a virus to change data. Freedom of Information Act (2000) This act allows people to . Public authorities include , , and . request public authorities to release information local councils government departments universities hospitals ​ A freedom of information must be and a from the organisation is required of receiving the request. request formally submitted in a letter or email reply within twenty days ​ A simple freedom of information request might be the in the past year. , such as if processing the request would be or if it involves protected by the ( ). average response times of the local ambulance service Certain requests will not be accepted too expensive sensitive information Data Protection Act 2018 10.1 - Ethical Issues Theory Topics 10.3 - Environmental Issues

  • Python | Extended Task 1 | CSNewbs

    Extended Task 1 Pete Porker's Pork Pie Emporium Hello, Pete Porker here... ​ I need a new program for customer orders. ​ I need the customer to enter how many scotch eggs (30p each), pork pies (80p each) and quiche tarts (£1.40) they want to order. ​ Next, ask them to confirm their choice. If they are not happy, ask the questions again. ​ If they confirm their choice, print a receipt showing their order and total. ​ To make your program better, you should use validation (either or ) to make sure that a user must enter a correct value. while loops error handling For this task, you will need to create a document and include the following sections (with screenshots where appropriate): ​ An introduction to explain the . Purpose of your program A for a successful program. List of Requirements (with in your code to show understanding). Screenshots of your code comments – Create a to show how you will test your program and then that you found and . Testing plan explanations of any errors how they were fixed An of what worked, what didn’t, and how you met each of your requirements from your original list. Also, discuss that you could have made to improve your program. Evaluation further improvements Example solution: Helpful reminders for this task: Inputting Integers While Loops Calculations Rounding Integers 12 - Error Handling Extended Task 2

  • 11.2 - Legislation - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    11.2: Legislation Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Data Protection Act (2018) In 2018 the European Union introduced ( ) to of data for people in the EU. The UK matched this by updating the Data Protection Act introduced in 1998 to become the . GDPR General Data Protection Regulation protect the privacy Data Protection Act (2018) ​ This act that is stored on computers and processed by organisations. protects the data of individuals ​ How the Data Protection Act works: ​ Each person who has their data stored is known as a . An employee within an organisation must be appointed as a and it is they who are responsible for . data subject data controller registering with the Information Commissioner The Information Commissioner is the person in the UK who is responsible for , most significantly the Data Protection Act. managing several laws When registering with the Information Commissioner, the organisation's on exactly: data controller must be clear they are collecting, What information it is being collected, Why What the data will be . used for ​ The six principles of the Data Protection Act state that data must be: 1. Collected lawfully and processed fairly. 2. Only used for the reasons specified. 3. Data must be relevant and not excessive. 4. Data must be accurate and up-to-date. 5. Data must not be stored for longer than necessary, 6. Data must be stored and processed securely. Computer Misuse Act (1990) This act was introduced as . The act attempts to stop and . Breaking any of the three principles could result in but only if it can be proved it was done and not by accident. computers became cheaper and more common at home and work punish those who use computers inappropriately fines and a jail sentence on purpose ​ The ( ) includes :​ Computer Misuse Act 1990 three main principles 1. No unauthorised access to data. ​ Example: Hacking a computer system. 2. No unauthorised access to data that could be used for further illegal activities. ​ Example: Accessing personal data to use as blackmail or identity theft. 3. No unauthorised modification of data. ​ ​ Example: Spreading a virus to change data. Freedom of Information Act (2000) This act allows people to . Public authorities include , , and . request public authorities to release information local councils government departments universities hospitals ​ A freedom of information must be and a from the organisation is required of receiving the request. request formally submitted in a letter or email reply within twenty days ​ A simple freedom of information request might be the in the past year. , such as if processing the request would be or if it involves protected by the ( ). average response times of the local ambulance service Certain requests will not be accepted too expensive sensitive information Data Protection Act 2018 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) This act (often shortened to RIPA ) was introduced in response to the increase in both criminal and terrorist activities on the internet, it is used to monitor and access online communication of suspected criminals . If criminal activity is suspected by an individual then this act grants the following powers : ​ Internet Service Providers (ISPs) must provide access to the suspect's online communication , such as emails or social media. Locked or encrypted data may be accessed such as online messages. ISPs could install surveillance equipment or software to track the suspect's online activity . Surveillance may take place to physically track the suspect , e.g. in private vans or by undercover officers in public spaces. Access must be granted to personal information . ​ This act became controversial as its use widened and local councils were using it for minor offences - a Scottish council used the act to monitor dog barking and a council in Cumbria gathered video evidence about who was feeding pigeons . The act has since been changed to only allow the surveillance of crime suspects . Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) This act makes it a of the creator or the copyright holder. This can refer to text, images, music, videos or software. criminal offence to copy work that is not your own without the permission Owning the copyright of an image might not prevent others from copying and using it but this act means that the owner can . bring legal proceedings in court to those who have stolen their work However, it is difficult to trace who has stolen work once it has been uploaded to the internet and copies can easily spread, especially television shows and movies. ​ This act specifically prohibits the following actions: to . Making copies of copyrighted material sell to others (except for personal use). Importing and downloading illegally copied material to have a . Distributing enough copyrighted material noticeable effect on the copyright holder , as part of a business. Possessing equipment used to copy copyrighted material Creative Commons (CC) Licensing A allows people to while still . CC licence share their copyrighted work retaining rights to the material ​ There are that specify exactly to the copyrighted material. For example: different types of licence what can and can't be done An allows but the original . attribution licence copyrighted material to be edited and distributed owner must be credited A allows copyrighted material to be shared and edited but through its distribution. non-commercial licence no profit must be gained , they must be . To ensure you are not illegally using copyrighted work change the and setting when using to . CC licences are not automatically given granted by the copyright owner Tools Licence Google Images filter work with CC licenses applied Telecommunications Regulation Act (2000) This act allows organisations to and on the phone by . lawfully monitor communications made online employees while at work ​ All users of the network should be when they are using , or . aware that their communication is being monitored emails the internet telephone calls ​ The act was introduced to ensure that employees are , to and to . using the computer systems for the correct purpose prevent illegal activity monitor staff performance Codes of Conduct One way that organisations try to ensure that staff are and is to . This is or they may be punished, such as a temporary ban from the network or being fired. There are two types of codes of conduct: held to professional standards display appropriate behaviour create a code of conduct a set of rules or requirements that employees must follow Formal codes of conduct are a set of written rules that clearly state expected behaviour , such as what employees can access online at work . Schools may have this too, and you might have to sign a document at the start of the year before you can use the computers. Informal codes of conduct are used by small organisations where there might not be a written set of rules , but newer employees follow the habits and expectations of senior members of staff. This is harder to monitor but provides a more relaxed working environment. uesto's uestions Q Q 11.2 - Legislation: ​ 1a. State the 6 principles of the Data Protection Act (2018) . [ 6 ] 1b. Explain how the Data Protection Act works . In your answer, you should include definitions of a data subject , the data controller and the Data Commissioner . [ 6 ] ​ [ 2. Describe the 4 principles of the Computer Misuse Act (1990) . 3 ] ​ 3. Describe the purpose of the Freedom of Information Act (1990) and state an example of a freedom request . [ 3 ] ​ 4a. What is the purpose of RIPA (2000) ? [ 2 ] 4b. Describe 3 actions that RIPA (2000) allows the government / police to do . [ 3 ] ​ 5a. What is the purpose of the Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) ? [ 2 ] 5b. Describe 3 actions that CDPA (1988) prohibits . [ 3 ] ​ 6a. What is a Creative Commons ( CC ) licence ? [ 2 ] 6b. Describe 2 types of CC licence . [ 4 ] ​ 7a. What is the purpose of the Telecommunications Regulation Act (2003) ? [ 2 ] 7b. Describe 3 reasons why this act was introduced . [ 3 ] ​ 8a. What is the purpose of a code of conduct ? [ 2 ] 8b. Describe the difference between formal and informal codes of conduct . [ 2 ] 11.1 - Impacts of Technology Theory Topics

  • 4.1 - UK Legislation | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    4.1 - UK Legislation Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Exam Board: OCR There are many types of legislation - laws that have been written into use - that concern data storage, protection and the use of information. In an exam, . the year the law was introduced must be stated Data Protection Act (2018) In 2018 the European Union introduced ( ) to of data for people in the EU. The UK matched this by updating the Data Protection Act introduced in 1998 to become the . GDPR General Data Protection Regulation protect the privacy Data Protection Act (2018) ​ This act that is stored on computers and processed by organisations. protects the data of individuals ​ How the Data Protection Act works: ​ Each person who has their data stored is known as a . An employee within an organisation must be appointed as a and it is they who are responsible for . data subject data controller registering with the Information Commissioner The Information Commissioner is the person in the UK who is responsible for , most significantly the Data Protection Act. managing several laws When registering with the Information Commissioner, the organisation's on exactly: data controller must be clear they are collecting, What information it is being collected, Why What the data will be . used for ​ The six principles of the Data Protection Act state: 1. Data must be collected lawfully and processed fairly. 4. Data must be accurate and up-to-date. 2. Collected data must only be used for the reasons specified. 5. Data must not be stored for longer than necessary, 3. Data must be relevant and not excessive. 6. Data must be stored and processed securely. Rights of data subjects: ​ Under the Data Protection Act (1998), individuals have a to any information that is stored about them by . right of access public bodies ​ If an individual wishes to access their data a number of processes must take place: The organisation's must be written to and told to access. data controller exactly what information is required An should be paid to the organisation. administrative fee The organisation must provide the requested information . within 40 days The individual must using appropriate ID. verify their identity Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) This act (often shortened to RIPA ) was introduced in response to the increase in both criminal and terrorist activities on the internet, it is used to monitor and access online communication of suspected criminals . If criminal activity is suspected by an individual then this act grants the following powers : ​ Internet Service Providers (ISPs) must provide access to the suspect's online communication , such as emails or social media. Locked or encrypted data may be accessed such as online messages. ISPs could install surveillance equipment or software to track the suspect's online activity . Surveillance may take place to physically track the suspect , e.g. in private vans or by undercover officers in public spaces. Access must be granted to personal information . ​ This act became controversial as its use widened and local councils were using it for minor offences - a Scottish council used the act to monitor dog barking and a council in Cumbria gathered video evidence about who was feeding pigeons . The act has since been changed to only allow the surveillance of crime suspects . Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) This act makes it a of the creator or the copyright holder. This can refer to text, images, music, videos or software. criminal offence to copy work that is not your own without the permission Owning the copyright of an image might not prevent others from copying and using it but this act means that the owner can . bring legal proceedings in court to those who have stolen their work However, it is difficult to trace who has stolen work once it has been uploaded to the internet and copies can easily spread, especially television shows and movies. ​ This act specifically prohibits the following actions: to . Making copies of copyrighted material sell to others (except for personal use). Importing and downloading illegally copied material to have a . Distributing enough copyrighted material noticeable effect on the copyright holder , as part of a business. Possessing equipment used to copy copyrighted material Protection of Freedoms Act (2012) There are seven sections to this act, revolving around the . It was introduced because there was , and to . IT-related sections are summarised below: protection of personal data little legislation about biometric data update older laws ​ Part 1 - States how (e.g. fingerprints and DNA) is stored, handled and collected. For example, before their child gives biometric data to a school. Also, biometric data for suspects of minor offences is after the case is closed. biometric data parents must give consent deleted ​ Part 2 - Creates (automatic number plate recognition) use. new regulation for CCTV and ANPR ​ Part 5 - The was created to run on anyone wanting to work with children or vulnerable people. Disclosure & Barring Service (DBS) background checks ​ Part 6 - Extends the allowing for . Freedom of Information Act (2000) wider requests to be made Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (2003) This law (which was ) . updated in 2011 regulates how organisations can communicate with individuals It makes it an unless they have to receive them. A noticeable effect of this is the increase of on online stores where you must opt-in (or opt-out if the tick box is cheekily pre-ticked for you) of receiving promotional material. offence to directly contact someone with marketing information specifically opted-in tick boxes The methods of communication that are regulated included . telephone calls, text messages and emails The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) is responsible for this regulation and can fine companies that commit up to £500,000. It is the who benefits and is protected by this regulation. unsolicited communication customer Equality Act (2010) The government states that "The Equality Act in the and in wider society. It replaced previous anti-discrimination laws with a single Act, making the law easier to understand and strengthening protection in some situations. It sets out the different ways in which it’s unlawful to treat someone." legally protects people from discrimination workplace ​ Discrimination because of are specifically punishable by legal action. The aim of the act is to and open up for every employee regardless of that are . gender, race and disability end discrimination in the workplace fair opportunities behavioural or physical characteristics outside of their control uesto's uestions Q Q 4.1 - UK Legislation: ​ Create a flashcard or PowerPoint slide for above. Explain the , its and . [ ] 1. each legislation purpose of the legislation main principles whom it affects 5 each Freedom of Information Act (2000) This act allows people to . Public authorities include , , and . request public authorities to release information local councils government departments universities hospitals ​ A freedom of information must be and a from the organisation is required of receiving the request. request formally submitted in a letter or email reply within twenty days ​ A simple freedom of information request might be the in the past year. , such as if processing the request would be or if it involves protected by the ( ). average response times of the local ambulance service Certain requests will not be accepted too expensive sensitive information Data Protection Act 2018 Computer Misuse Act (1990) This act was introduced as . The act attempts to stop and . Breaking any of the three principles could result in but only if it can be proved it was done and not by accident. computers became cheaper and more common at home and work punish those who use computers inappropriately fines and a jail sentence on purpose ​ The ( ) includes :​ Computer Misuse Act 1990 three main principles 1. No unauthorised access to data. ​ Example: Hacking a computer system. 2. No unauthorised access to data that could be used for further illegal activities. ​ Example: Accessing personal data to use as blackmail or identity theft. 3. No unauthorised modification of data. ​ ​ Example: Spreading a virus to change data. 3.6 - Information Systems Topic List 4.2 - Global Legislation

  • Greenfoot Glossary | CSNewbs

    Greenfoot Code Glossary Key Down (Greenfoot.isKeyDown( )) if "right" { setRotation(0); move(1); } Is At Edge (isAtEdge()) if { turn(180); } move(1); (Greenfoot.getRandomNumber(10)<1) if { turn(Greenfoot.getRandomNumber(90) - 45); } Random Actor Crab = getOneObjectAtOffset(0,0,Crab. ); class (Crab != ) if null { getWorld().removeObject(Crab); } Remove Object Play Sound Greenfoot.playSound( ); "munch.mp3" Greenfoot.stop(); Stop Counter Import the Counter! ​ Also, In the MyWorld editor, add 'counter' to each class's empty brackets that you have added the counter to! Before Act() Method private Counter counter; ​ Counter Code counter.add(1); ​ After Act() Method public Bear(Counter pointcounter) { counter = pointcounter; } Stuck? If you start typing but can't remember what commands come next, press together to show a that you can use. Ctrl and Space list of all possible commands Back to Greenfoot page

  • 1.1 - The CPU & FDE Cycle | OCR A-Level | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: OCR 1.1 The CPU & The FDE Cycle Specification: A-Level 2015 The is the most important component in any computer system. Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) ​ The purpose of the CPU is to by constantly repeating the . process data and instructions fetch - decode - execute cycle CPU Components The control unit directs the flow of data and information into the CPU. It also controls the other parts of the CPU . ALU stands for ‘ Arithmetic and Logic Unit ’. It performs simple calculations and logical operations . The registers are temporary storage spaces for data and instructions inside the CPU . ​ The registers are used during the FDE cycle . ​ Five essential registers are explained below. Important Registers A is a for in the . register small storage space temporary data CPU ​ Each register has a . There are five essential registers used in the specific role FDE cycle : Program Counter (PC) A register that tracks the RAM address of the next instruction to be fetched . Memory Address Register (MAR) A register that tracks the RAM address of data that is currently being accessed . Memory Data Register (MDR) ​ The MDR stores the that is to the . data transferred from RAM CPU Current Instruction Register (CIR) A register that stores the instruction that has been fetched from RAM , and is about to be decoded or executed . Accumulator (ACC) ​ The ACC performed in the . stores the result of executions FDE cycle The FDE Cycle The essential idea of the FDE cycle is that , to be (understood) and . instructions are fetched from RAM decoded executed (processed) by the CPU ​ The is performed by the millions of times every second. Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) cycle CPU ​ This cycle is how the for each program or service that requires its attention. CPU processes data and instructions 1. 2. 3. The ( ) register displays the of the . Program Counter PC address in RAM next instruction to be processed This value is the ( ). copied into Memory Address Register MAR 0054 The register is . PC increased by 1 ​ This for the to be fetched. prepares the CPU next instruction 0055 The CPU which held . checks the address in RAM matches the address in the MAR 0054 4. The is ( ). instruction in RAM transferred to the Memory Data Register MDR MDR 5. The is ( ). instruction in the MDR copied into the Current Instruction Register CIR MDR CIR 6. The is (understood) and (processed). instruction in the CIR decoded executed Any is ( ) register. result of an execution stored in the Accumulator ACC CIR ACC 7. The by returning to the and checking the program counter for the address of the . cycle repeats first step next instruction Buses within a computer system along called . Data is transferred pathways buses ​ There are of bus: three types Address Bus Sends a of where data is stored.​​ The address is sent in the FDE cycle. memory address from the CPU to RAM Data Bus Transfers between components. Data is sent . data both ways Control Bus Sends from the to other components of the system. are sent back to the CPU. control signals control unit Status signals Think about which buses would be used during the FDE cycle and when. ​ For example, look back at stages 3 and 4 of the FDE cycle above. The address bus is used to send the address in RAM of the next instruction . The control bus is used to send the fetch signal . The data bus is used to transfer the instruction from RAM to the MDR . Computer Architecture The way a computer is and is known as its . designed internally organised architecture ​ The most common type of computer architecture is . Von Neumann architecture Von Neumann Architecture The key features of Von Neumann architecture include: The CPU , which constantly performs the FDE cycle , and contains: One control unit One ALU Special registers ​ D ata and instructions are stored in the same format in the same area in memory . Instructions are commands and data are the specific values used when processing. ​ Data and instructions are transferred across buses (pathways) between the CPU, memory and input or output devices. Harvard Architecture The key features of Harvard architecture include: ​ The CPU , which constantly performs the FDE cycle , and contains: One control unit One ALU ​ D ata and instructions are stored in separate areas in memory . Instructions are commands and data are the specific values used when processing. ​ Data and instructions are transferred across buses (pathways) between the CPU, data memory, instruction memory and input or output devices. uesto's uestions Q Q 1.1 - The Central Processing Unit (CPU): ​ What does ' ' ? [ 1a. CPU stand for 1 ] What is the ? [ 1b. purpose of the CPU 2 ] ​ , use the same symbols as shown on this page. [ 2a. Draw a diagram of the CPU 4 ] Label the of the CPU. [ 2b. three main components 4 ] ​ Describe the of: 3. purpose The [ a. Control Unit 2 ] The [ b. ALU 2 ] The [ c. registers ] 2 ​ Describe the . [ 4a. key features of Von Neumann architecture 3 ] Describe the between the main types of architecture. [ 4b. differences two 2 ] Theory Topics 1.2 - Performance

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