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  • 3.2 - Packets & Switching - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.2: Data Packets & Switching Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is a data packet? When sending data across a network, files are into smaller parts called . broken down data packets ​ Whole files are too large to transfer as one unit so data packets allow data to be . transferred across a network quickly ​ Each packet of data is by routers across networks until it arrives at its destination. Data packets and use to reach the destination address. redirected may split up alternative routes ​ When all the packets have arrived at the destination address the back into the original file. data is reassembled Contents of a Data Packet Data packets contain which are used to redirect the packets towards the destination address. six distinct pieces of data Packet Switching vs. Circuit Switching The key difference is that a circuit-switched network sends data along the same route . A packet-switched network sends data packets along different routes . Packet Switching With a the data is . packet-switched network split into packets The data packets are transmitted over a network and may take to its destination. different routes When all the packets have arrived the . data is reassembled The is an example of a packet-switching network. Internet Advantages of Packet Switching: Transmission is more secure as it is harder for a hacker to intercept complete data because it can take different routes . If a network device fails the data packets can take an alternative route . Data packets can be sent efficiently and individually across less busy routes . Disadvantages of Packet Switching: ​ Reassembling the data takes longer because packets may arrive out of order . It is less reliable than circuit switching as some data packets may not reach the destination (this is called packet loss ). Circuit Switching When data is transmitted over a all of the data takes the to the destination address in . circuit-switched network same route one continuous stream The at the destination because it is already . data is quickly reassembled in the correct order The is an example of a circuit-switched network. old telephone system Advantages of Circuit Switching: ​ Reassembling the data is quick because the packets arrive in the order that they were sent. It is more reliable than packet-switching because data is sent in one continuous stream . The transmission is fast and should encounter fewer errors - once the connection has been securely established . Disadvantages of Circuit Switching: Less secure as hackers could intercept the data and more easily access the data as it all takes the same route. Establishing a connection takes time to set up. If any device fails on the route then the whole connection breaks and data transfer will be incomplete. uesto's uestions Q Q 3.2 - Data Packets & Switching: ​ the and 1. Draw data packet diagram label all 6 pieces of information [ . 6 ] ​ Describe how . [ ] 2a. packet switching works 3 Describe the . [ ] 2b. advantages of packet switching 3 Describe the . [ ] 2c. disadvantages of packet switching 2 ​ Describe how . [ ] 3a. circuit switching works 3 Describe the . [ ] 3b. advantages of circuit switching 3 Describe the . [ ] 3c. disadvantages of circuit switching 3 3.1 - Network Characteristics Theory Topics 3.3 - Network Topology

  • 4.2 - Global Legislation | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    4.2 - Global Legislation Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 Data Protection Outside of the UK should unless the country receiving the data has that match the / ( ). Personal data not be transferred outside of the UK adequate data protection laws Data Protection Act (2018) GDPR General Data Protection Regulation ​ was introduced in all ( ) in 2018. This set of regulations and can be sent between EU countries. However, many other countries (such as the USA and Canada) whilst regarding data protection. GDPR European Union EU countries ensure that personal data is protected only have partially adequate data protection laws many nations have inadequate or no laws Click the map button to visit CNIL's website and see exactly which countries have adequate, inadequate and no data protection laws. UNCRPD stands for . UNCRPD United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities This is a United Nations human right that states (article 9) and (article 21). disabled people should be able to 'access information systems' 'use digital means to express their opinion' Methods of complying with this convention include:​ Personal data can be (such as the UK) because of a which was known as the ' ' scheme (between 2000 and 2015) and the ' ' (between 2015 and 2020). sent between European countries and the United States protection scheme Safe Harbour EU-US Privacy Shield ​ This provided and required engaged in data transaction to before personal data could be transferred. The companies must have been for the security of the data. protection to European data in the US both companies sign up to the scheme assessed as responsible ​ The scheme was because the European Court of Justice argued it did not adequately protect the personal data of Europeans from government access. stopped in July 2020 Using so that text-to-speech software can describe the image aloud, for the . The tag can be added to the HTML code of an image on a website and will be by specialist reading software. < alt> text on images visually impaired audibly spoken This image contains alt text that can't be seen by a typical viewer but will be read aloud by screen reading software. . Websites could allow users to and style or change the background colour to make . Wikipedia presents some articles to be if the user is unable to read them. Accessibility settings change the font size text easier to read listened to Example Text Example Text Example Text Example Text uesto's uestions Q Q 4.2 - Global Legislation: ​ What is the ? [ ] 1a. problem with transferring data outside of the UK 2 Why can personal data be ? [ ] 1b. transferred between European countries 2 ​ Open the (use the and click on a specific country to see its name) and state: 2. CNIL map link on this page Four countries in the EU Two countries with partially adequate protection Two countries with an authority and law (dark purple) Two countries with laws only (light purple) Four countries with no data protection laws [ ] 7 ​ What is and why is it ? [ ] 3a. UNCRPD important 3 Describe what is used for. [ ] 3b. alt text 2 State that could affect how . [ ] 3b. three accessibility settings easy text is to read 3 EU-US Privacy Shield 4.1 - UK Legislation Topic List 4.3 - Green IT

  • 3.6 - Hardware & Routing - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    3.6: Network Hardware & Routing Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + Network Devices Hub A hub from a connected device and . receives data packets transfers a copy to all connected nodes Switch A switch , processes them and specifically listed in the of the packet. receives data packets transfers them on to the device destination address Router Routers are used to . transfer data packets between networks Data is sent from network to network on the internet towards the listed in the data packet. destination address A router stores the and uses to calculate the . address of each computer on the network routing tables quickest and shortest path Bridge A joins together . bridge two networks that use the same base protocols For example, a bridge could link together a . LAN to another LAN Network Interface Card (NIC) A (often shortened to ) is an that is . Network Interface Card NIC internal piece of hardware required for the computer to connect to a network It used to be a separate expansion card but now it is commonly (and sometimes known as a ). built directly into the motherboard network adapter permit a wireless network connection. Wireless network interface cards ( WNIC ) Routing A is a list of the for data packets to be sent from one device to another. routing table optimal routes ​ Routing tables should be kept accurate and up to date to ensure that packets are transferred as quickly as possible . ​ During routing the . This is the with the to transfer data. lowest cost route is calculated shortest path fastest nodes ​ Below is a simplified network and basic routing table showing the (optimal) lowest cost route using node A as the source address. uesto's uestions Q Q 3.6 - Network Hardware & Routing: 1a. Describe the difference between a hub and a switch . [ 2 ] Explain how a works. 1b. modem [ 2 ] Describe the purpose of a . 1c. router [ 2 ] Describe the between a . 1d. difference gateway and a bridge [ 2 ] State what stands for and why it is . 1e. NIC required [ 2 ] ​ 2a. Describe what a routing table is and why they should be maintained . [ 2 ] 2b. In terms of routing, what does a low-cost route mean? [ 2 ] 2c. Copy and complete the routing table below using node J as the source address . [ 4 ] ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Modem Modems are used to . send data across the telephone network The can so a modem is used to into an . telephone lines only transfer analog signals convert a computer's digital data analog signal Another at the receiving end. modem converts the signal back to a digital format Gateway A joins together . gateway two networks that use different base protocols For example, a gateway could link together a . LAN to a WAN 3.5 - TCP/IP 5-Layer Model Theory Topics 3.7 - DNS Servers

  • Python | Section 2 Practice Tasks | CSNewbs

    Python - Section 2 Practice Tasks Task One Ask a user to their favourite colour and their favourite food and then a funny response. input print ​ Requirements for a complete program: Two separate lines. input Use only one line. Include both of the user's answers in the print line. print Include capital letters, full stops and no irregular spacing in the printed line. Remember: Break up variables in a print line by using commas or plus signs between each part of the . "sentence" Example solution: Task Two Create a program that asks the user a trivia question of your choice then the correct answer with their response too. prints Requirements for a complete program: Only two lines. Include capital letters, full stops and no irregular spacing in the printed line. Example solution: Task Three Create a program that asks the user how they get to school (as a ) and how many minutes it takes them (as an ). string integer Then print an appropriate response that uses both answers. ​ ​ Requirements for a complete program: Two separate input lines. line. Include both of the user's answers in the print line. Use only one print Include capital letters, full stops and no irregular spacing in the printed line. Example solution: 2b - Inputting Numbers 3a - Data Types

  • 3.6 - 7 Layer OSI Model - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    3.6: 7-Layer OSI Model Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What are networking standards? are rules that across . Standards have been created to can . Networking standards allow computer systems to communicate networks ensure devices exchange data and work together What is the 7-layer OSI Model? The OSI ( Open Systems Interconnection ) is split into model 7 layers The model is used to as . . visualise the different parts of a network each of the seven layers has a specific role ​ is beneficial to programmers as it , making it . Splitting a network design into layers simplifies design easier to modify and use ​ Each layer and is associated with . has a certain purpose different protocols ​ The seven layers are explained below: 7 e.g. browsers ( / ) and email ( ) and file transfer ( ). Allows humans and software applications to use the network HTTP HTTPS SMTP FTP 6 The purpose of the to in a that can . presentation layer display data standard format other devices accept and understand 5 The between computers between them. Data can be in each session to allow for . session layer establishes a connection allowing data to be sent synchronised efficient data transfer 4 and without errors. TCP breaks the data down into data packets . This layer makes sure the data is sent and received in the correct order reassembled at the destination 3 . The for the data to take in this layer. IP is responsible for addressing and routing data packets optimal route is calculated Also known as the ' '. Internet Layer 2 Ethernet sets out the format of data packets . This layer handles transmission errors and passes . data to the physical layer 1 using This layer converts the data packets into bits so they can be transferred across a physical connection routers and switches . uesto's uestions Q Q 3.6 - 7-Layer OSI Model: 1a. What are networking standards ? [ 2 ] 1b. Describe why network designs are split into layers . [ 2 ] 2. Create a diagram similar to the one above and describe each layer of the OSI Model. [ 14 ] 3. Look at the statements below and name the layer that is being described: a. This layer ensures data packets are sent and received correctly. b. This layer checks for errors in transmission and sets out the data packet format. c. This layer displays data in a format that can be understood. d. This layer allows software like web browsers to interact with the network. e. This layer transfers bits across a connection using routers. f. This layer establishes a connection between computer systems. g. This layer uses addresses to ensure data packets take the correct route. [ 7 ] 3.5 - Protocols Theory Topics 3.7 - The Internet

  • Python | 7a - Procedures | CSNewbs

    Python 7a - Procedures Subroutines A is a in the same program. subroutine section of code that can be re-used several times It is from the main code and has to be upon. separate ‘called’ Subroutines are designed to be repeated, and they have three key benefits: ​ Subroutines make programs . easier to read They . reduce the duplication of code are into . Complex problems broken down smaller chunks ​ There are of subroutines: and . two types procedures functions ​ A just , such as printing something a certain number of times. procedure executes commands A produces information by receiving data from the main program and to the main program. function returning a value For example, a function could take the radius of a sphere from the main program, calculate a sphere’s area and return the value of the area to the main program. A function generally requires to work – these are the values to be transferred from the main program to the subroutine. parameters Procedures A s a type of that . procedure i subroutine runs independently of the main program ​ A subroutine before the main code by typing and the . must be defined at the top of the program def name of the subroutine ​ In the example below I have created a procedure to calculate the multiplication of two numbers and a separate procedure for the division. The starts , against the left side of the editor. main program beneath the subroutines ​ I have created a that asks the user if they want to multiply, divide or stop the program. while true loop ​ If they choose to multiply, the is . This initiates that subroutine then when it is complete. multiply subroutine called returns to the main program ​ If they choose to divide, the is instead. Typing stop will (end) the loop. divide subroutine called break Here you can see the two parts of the program put together. ​ , with the rest of the program underneath. Subroutines must be written first . Below I have run the program and divided then multiplied before breaking the loop: Subroutines can be called in any order Practice Tasks 1 Create a procedure called hello that just prints “Hello there ”. 1. ! ​ In the main program create a for loop that calls the procedure 10 times. ​ You must use a procedure. Create a program with two procedures. The addition procedure allows the user to add two numbers together. The subtraction procedure allows the user to take a number away from another. Use a while true loop in the main program and a break to stop the loop. 2. Example solution for #1: Local & Global Variables Programming languages use and . local variables global variables ​ A can be . global variable used anywhere in the program ​ A can . local variable only be used in the subroutine it is created in ​ I have adapted the multiply / divide program below to use global variables by stating the command and the in each subroutine. This allows me to ask the user to enter numbers in the main program. global name of the variables Practice Tasks 2 1. Adapt your addition / subtraction program from the first practice task section to use global variables. ​ Create a program that asks the user to enter their name in the main program. Call a subroutine that greets the user using the name variables. 2. You must use a procedure and a global variable . Example solution for #2: Section 6 Practice Tasks 7b - Functions

  • 4.4 - Arithmetic Shift - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    4.4: Arithmetic Shift Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is arithmetic shift? Arithmetic shift is used to and . multiply divide binary numbers The effect of is to a binary number. shifting left multiply The effect is by each place that is . doubled shifted x The effect of is to a binary number. shifting right divide ÷ Shifting by has an effect of . 1 2 ​ Shifting by has an effect of . 2 4 ​ Shifting by has an effect of . 3 8 For example, shifting by has an effect of . left 2 places multiplying by 4 Another example: Shifting by has an effect of . right 3 places diving by 8 How to shift a binary number: An may ask you to arithmetically shift a binary number of up to . exam question 16 digits uesto's uestions Q Q 4.4 - Arithmetic Shift: ​ Draw a to show the of a . [ ] 1a. diagram effect multiplying and dividing binary number 2 Draw a to show a shift has for each from . For example, a shift of 1 place has an effect of 2. [ ] 1b. diagram or table the effect place 1 to 4 4 ​ 2. State the effect of the following shifts: a. Shift right by 2 places. b. Shift left by 1 place. c. Shift left 3 places. d. Shift right by 4 places. [ 1 each ] ​ 3. Shift the following binary numbers and state the effect of the shift: a. 10101011 : Shift left by 2 places. b. 11101100 : Shift right by 3 place. c. 00001011 : Shift right by 2 places. d. 01101110 : Shift left by 1 place. [ 2 each ] 4.3 Binary Calculations Theory Topics 4.5 - Character Sets & Data Types

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.4 - Connectivity | CSNewbs

    1.4 - Connectivity Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 For computers to with other devices and a form of is required. communicate share data connection Wired Connections Copper Cables Copper cables are a type of wired internet connection that may be poorly insulated and therefore susceptible to . cheaper electromagnetic interference ​ Copper cables are ( ). more likely to suffer from attenuation network distortion ​ However, they are (easier to bend) and than other cables such as fibre optic. malleable less likely to break They have a - cannot transmit as much data at once - than fibre optic cables. lower bandwidth Fibre Optic Cables Fibre optic cables are a but type of wired internet connection. very fast expensive Signals are transmitted as through a tube. Because of this fibre optic cables are not affected by and suffer . waves of light glass electromagnetic interference less from attenuation ​ Fibre optic cables have a - can transfer more data at one time - than copper cables but they are . higher bandwidth more fragile Wireless Connections Bluetooth Bluetooth is a temporary between devices within a limit of about . short-range communication 10 metres For example, Bluetooth can be used to transfer audio files from one smartphone to another. ​ The is a disadvantage but for a connection. close proximity no other hardware is required Infrared Infrared networks have been replaced by Bluetooth or WiFi connections because infrared . requires devices to be in direct line of sight Infrared is still used by some devices such as to transmit signals to a TV but it only works across a . remote controls short distance Microwave Microwave connections use radio waves to send signals across a via . large area microwave towers It can transmit a large amount of data but antennas . must be in the line of sight of each other with no obstructions ​ Microwave connections are , leading to ( ). affected by bad weather higher chances of attenuation network distortion Laser Satellite GSM / 5G Although not common, laser connections can send data between devices that are in the of each other as long as there are . line of sight no barriers Laser connections can transmit data but the transmission rate. up to 2km bad weather severely affects ​ Laser connections can be used in as there are fewer barriers between the satellites. space use by using satellites above the Earth's atmosphere that receive a transmission and rebroadcast them back to Earth. Satellite networks point-to-multipoint communication See for more information on . Because of the between the communication device and the satellite (roughly 45,000 miles), there is a between data transmission and it being received. distance delay 3.4 satellite networks ( ) is a technology for allowing mobile phones to for calls and text messages. GSM Global System for Mobile communications connect to a network ​ Advances in mobile technology are classified by such as 4G and 5G (the current generation). Each generation is generally faster, more secure and allows for new opportunities. See for more information on . generations 3.4 cellular networks uesto's uestions Q Q 1.4 - Connection Methods: ​ Compare the between (possibly in a table) by the following features: 1. differences copper and fibre optic cables Price a. Bandwidth b. Inteference c. Attenuation d. Malleability / Fragility [ ] e. 2 each ​ 2. Describe each of the different types of . Try to list and using each type. wireless connection 1 advantage 1 disadvantage of Bluetooth a. Infrared b. Microwave c. Laser d. Satellite e. GSM / 5G [ ] f. 5 each 1.3 - Computer System Types Topic List 1.5 - Communication Hardware

  • Python | 5a - Random | CSNewbs

    Python 5a - Random Importing This section looks at additional commands that you can and use from . import Python’s code library A library is a collection of different coding sequences that automatically come with Python but are from the main file. They can be imported (brought in) to your program by using the . separate import command at the start of your program ​ Imagine Python’s library to be similar to an actual library. There are different sections in a real library (such as History, Geography, Reference) and different sections in Python’s library (such as or ). Each real library has many individual books in each section, just like Python. random time For example, below we want to open up Python’s code library, go to the section called and import just the command called . random randint This is more efficient than just importing the whole section. random Random Numbers To generate random numbers, first the command section from Python’s code library on the of the program: import randint random first line command stands for . In brackets, state the number to randomly choose from. The randint random integer range ​ The random value must be saved into a . variable Above is a valid random number generation line but it needs the import command and a print line to be a complete program: The range in the brackets of a randint command does not have to be fixed values and could be replaced by . variables Below is a program where the user selects the upper and lower values of the range: Practice Task 1 1. Generate a random number between 1 and 5. 2. Ask the user to enter a number between 1 and 5. 3. the user’s number equals the random number then print “CORRECT!” otherwise print “INCORRECT!” If Example solution: Random Characters Rather than just numbers, we can also from a specified range by using the command. randomly generate characters choice Just like before, you need to the command from the library and specify the in brackets. import random range ​ Below is a program that randomly chooses a letter of the alphabet: The range of characters to choose from does not have to be solely letters; you could use or . numbers punctuation ​ Also, the range does not have to be fixed either. Characters can be selected from a instead, such as below: variable value Practice Task 2 1. Generate a random sample from “aeiou”. 2. Ask the user to input a vowel (make sure they use lowercase letters too). 3. If the user’s vowel matches up with the random sample then output an appropriate response. 4. Print a different response if they do not match up. Example solution: Random Sample To choose more than one value from a set of data, use the command. sample ​ After you have written this command you need to specify the list of values to sample from and how many values you want to choose: Be careful with your brackets. The must be and and enclosed . string values within speech marks separated by commas within square brackets After the list of string values, you need another and then a value to denote . comma how many values to select ​ Below is a program that selects three values from a list of strings and outputs them. Remember to include the line at the start for every program using a command. import random You can also use the command to choose several from a given range. sample integers By implementing the command too, you don’t need to individually write out each value like the string example above. range Practice Task 3 Your aunt is going to have a baby boy. Create a program that randomly selects 3 male names from a list of 10 possible names. Example solution: Section 4 Practice Tasks 5b - Sleep

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