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  • Privacy Policy | CSNewbs

    Computer Science Newbies Privacy Policy What type of information do you collect? We receive, collect and store any information you enter on our website or provide us in any other way. In addition, we collect the Internet protocol (IP) address used to connect your computer to the Internet. For users with registered accounts, we collect your login; e-mail address; password; computer and connection information and purchase history. We may use software tools to measure and collect session information, including page response times, length of visits to certain pages, page interaction information, and methods used to browse away from the page. For customers of the site we also collect personally identifiable information (including name, email, password, communications); payment details (including credit card information), comments, feedback, product reviews, recommendations, and personal profile How do you collect information? When you conduct a transaction on our website, as part of the process, we collect personal information you give us such as your name, address and email address. Your personal information will be used for the specific reasons stated above only. Why do you collect such personal information? We collect such Non-personal and Personal Information for the following purposes: To provide and operate the CSN+ service; To provide our Users with ongoing customer assistance and technical support; To be able to contact our Visitors and Users with general or personalized service-related notices and promotional messages; To create aggregated statistical data and other aggregated and/or inferred Non-personal Information, which we or our business partners may use to provide and improve our respective services; To comply with any applicable laws and regulations. How do you store, use, share and disclose your site visitors' personal information? Our company is hosted on the platform. provides us with the online platform that allows us to sell our products and services to you. Your data may be stored through’s data storage, databases and the general applications. They store your data on secure servers behind a firewall. All direct payment gateways offered by and used by our company adhere to the standards set by PCI-DSS as managed by the PCI Security Standards Council, which is a joint effort of brands like Visa, MasterCard, American Express and Discover. PCI-DSS requirements help ensure the secure handling of credit card information by our store and its service providers ​ How do you communicate with your site visitors? We may contact you to notify you regarding your account, to troubleshoot problems with your account, to resolve a dispute, to send updates about our company, or as otherwise necessary to contact you to enforce our User Agreement, applicable national laws, and any agreement we may have with you. For these purposes, we may contact you via email. How do you use cookies and other tracking tools? The following essential cookies are used on this site: ​ RF-TOKEN (Used for security reasons during your session on the site.) hs (Used for security reasons during your session on the site.) svSession (Used in connection with user login.) SSR-caching (Used to indicate the system from which the site was rendered. Duration of 1 minute.) _wixCIDX (Used for system monitoring/debugging. Duration of 3 months.) _wix_browser_sess (Used for system monitoring/debugging during your session on the site.) consent-policy (Used for cookie banner parameters. Duration of 12 months.) smSession (Used to identify logged in site members during your session on the site.) TS* (Used for security and anti-fraud reasons during your session on the site.) Session (Used for system effectiveness measurement. Duration of 30 minutes.) fedops.logger.sessionId (Used for stability/effectiveness measurement. Duration of 12 months.) ​ To learn more about cookies please visit ​ How can your site visitors withdraw their consent? If you have a registered account and don’t want us to process your data anymore, please contact us at the site email address listed at the bottom of this page. ​ Privacy policy updates We reserve the right to modify this privacy policy at any time, so please review it frequently. Changes and clarifications will take effect immediately upon their posting on the website. If we make material changes to this policy, we will notify you here that it has been updated, so that you are aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we use and/or disclose it. ​ Questions and contact information If you would like to: access, correct, amend or delete any personal information we have about you, you are invited to contact us at:

  • About | CSNewbs

    about Frequently Asked Questions Computer Science Newbies Who made CSNewbs? My name is Mr Pulsford . I am a Computer Science teacher from London and I currently teach at a secondary school in Birmingham , England . ​ When and why did you make this? I wanted to make a resource that my . I was working on a paid summer project at in London in students could access outside of the classroom G o o g l e 2016 when I was inspired to start the site. I've been updating it ever since as much as I can, outside of lessons and life. I made CSNewbs to support students in lessons and at home because Computer Science can be a tricky subject and many websites are too technical or peripheral . Which courses does CSNewbs cover? The ' GCSE ' section follows the Eduqas specification ( both 2016 and 2020 ). The ' CTech ' section follows the OCR Cambridge Technicals Level 3 IT 2016 specification for Unit 1 (Fundamentals of IT) and Unit 2 (Global Information). The ' Programming ' section contains material for Python , HTML , Greenfoot and others. The ' KS3 ' section covers basic Computer Science topics aimed at Year 7 - 9 students . ​ Do the exam boards pay you money for this? CSNewbs is , . The content on this site has been by closely following the publicly released specifications by Eduqas and OCR. not affiliated with any exam board financially or otherwise independently created ​ Can I get a level 9 / distinction just from CSNewbs? The content on this website is of and should be used to of the course's content. Like all resources , it should be and . CSNewbs makes no miraculous claims linking content use and final exam results.​ high-quality guide students towards a better understanding however supported with a range of appropriate material sound classroom teaching How did you make this website? was created and is maintained using . Wix ​ What's the deal with copyright? CSNewbs is , and copy / paste features have been disabled on the site. All images have either been or used from . Embedded videos are linked to content from the page. If you think any content on this site , please email me, and I will make . protected by copyright created by myself Wix's copyright-free vector gallery / their stock image library CSNewbs YouTube infringes a copyright-protected work immediate changes ​ I don't see any adverts, how are you making money? You're right, there are and I intend to keep it that way. including but the . no adverts CSNewbs teacher resources are currently in development lesson slides , worksheets and revision activity sheets content on the site will always stay free and available ​ Can you add Unit 3 / OCR A-Level / something else? The site continues to . The eventual aim is to cover every exam board for GCSE Computer Science but that will take a lot of time! expand over time with new content Who is the robot? The robot is called Questo . It's the site mascot and it appears on most pages to ask you questions about the content (' Questo's Questions '). It used to have a body but since 2020 it's just a head. ​ I can't believe one person made this whole site while teaching and the rest, what are your long-term plans? If you work for an exam board or educational resource organisation , and your organisation has opportunities available , please send me an email. How can I contact the creator of CSNewbs? The contact email is: ​ You can stay updated by following on Twitter - @CSNewbs Privacy Policy

  • Eduqas GCSE Topic List | CSNewbs

    Eduqas GCSE Computer Science These pages cover content from the . The content can also be used by students studying GCSE Computer Science . Eduqas GCSE Computer Science 2016 and 2020 specifications WJEC in Wales 2016 Specification The 2016 is for students who started specification Year 10 before September 2020 . 2020 Specification The is for students who started . 2020 specification Year 10 in or after September 2020 1. Hardware - The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 1.1 - The FDE Cycle 1.2 - Primary Storage 1.3 - Secondary Storage & Data Units 1.4 - Performance 1.5 - Buses & Instruction Sets 1.6 - Additional Hardware 1.7 2. Logical Operators & Boolean - Logical Operators 2.1 - Boolean Algebra 2.2 1. Hardware - The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 1.1 - The FDE Cycle 1.2 - Primary Storage 1.3 - Secondary Storage 1.4 - 1.5 Performance - Additional Hardware 1.6 2. Logical Operators & Boolean - Logical Operators 2.1 - Boolean Algebra 2.2 3. Networks 3.1 - Network Characteristics 3.2 - Data Packets & Switching 3.3 - Network Topology 3.4 - Protocols - TCP/IP 5-Layer Model 3.5 - Network Devices, Addressing & Routing 3.6 - Domain Name System (DNS) Servers 3.7 3. Networks & Security 3.1 - Network Characteristics 3.2 - Data Packets & Switching 3.3 - Network Topology 3.4 - Network Hardware & Routing 3.5 - Protocols 3.6 - 7-Layer OSI Model - The Internet 3.7 - Cyber Threats 3.8 - Protection Against Threats 3.9 4. Data - Number Systems 4.1 - Arithmetic Shift 4.2 - Binary Addition 4.3 - Graphical Representation 4.4 - Sound Representation 4.5 - Compression 4.6 - Character Sets & Data Types 4.7 - Data Structures 4.8 - Validation & Verification 4.9 4. Data - Number Systems 4.1 - Signed Binary 4.2 - Binary Calculations 4.3 - Arithmetic Shift 4.4 - Character Sets & Data Types 4.5 - Graphical Representation 4.6 - Sound Representation 4.7 - Compression 4.8 5. System Software 5.1 - Operating Systems 5.2 - Utility Software 6. Programming - Language Levels 6.1 - Reading Algorithms 6.2 5. Data Organisation 5.1 - Data Structures & File Design 6. Operating Systems - Operating Systems 6.1 - Utility Software 6.2 7. Software Engineering 7.1 - IDE Facilities 7. Principles of Programming 7.1 - Language Levels 8. Program Construction - Translators 8.1 - Stages of Compilation 8.2 - Programming Errors 8.3 9. Security & Data Management 9.1 - Malware & Threats 9.2 - Cyber Attacks 9.3 - Protection Methods 9.4 - Identifying Vulnerabilities 9 .5 - Data Management 10. Ethics, Laws & Environment - Ethical Issues 10.1 - Legislation 10.2 - Environmental issues 10.3 Component 2 (On-Screen Exam) Principles of Programming HTML Greenfoot Assembly Language Sorting & Searching Algorithms Algorithms 8. Algorithms & Constructs - Programming Principles 8.1 - Understanding Algorithms 8.2 - Sorting & Searching Algorithms 8.3 - Validation & Verification 8.4 9. Software Development 9.1 - IDE Tools 10. Program Construction - Translators 10.1 - Stages of Compilation 10.2 - Programming Errors 10.3 11. Technological Issues 11.1 - Impacts of Technology 11.2 - Legislation Component 2 (Programming Exam) Python Component 3 (Coursework) Python

  • 1.2 - The FDE Cycle - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    1.2: The FDE Cycle Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + The is performed by the millions of times every second. Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) cycle CPU ​ This cycle is how the for each program or service that requires its attention. CPU processes data and instructions Important Registers A is a for in the . register small storage space temporary data CPU ​ Each register has a . There are five essential registers used in the specific role FDE cycle : Program Counter (PC) A register that tracks the RAM address of the next instruction to be fetched . Memory Address Register (MAR) A register that tracks the RAM address of data that is currently being accessed . Memory Data Register (MDR) ​ The MDR stores the that is to the . data transferred from RAM CPU Current Instruction Register (CIR) A register that stores the instruction that has been fetched from RAM , and is about to be decoded or executed . Accumulator (ACC) ​ The ACC performed in the . stores the result of executions FDE cycle Fetch - Decode - Execute Cycle The essential idea of the FDE cycle is that , to be (understood) and . instructions are fetched from RAM decoded executed (processed) by the CPU 1. The ( ) register displays the of the . Program Counter PC address in RAM next instruction to be processed This value is the ( ). copied into Memory Address Register MAR 0054 2. The register is . PC increased by 1 ​ This for the to be fetched. prepares the CPU next instruction 0055 3. The CPU which held . checks the address in RAM matches the address in the MAR 0054 4. The is ( ). instruction in RAM transferred to the Memory Data Register MDR 5. The is ( ). instruction in the MDR copied into the Current Instruction Register CIR MDR MDR CIR 6. The is (understood) and (processed). instruction in the CIR decoded executed Any is ( ) register. result of an execution stored in the Accumulator ACC CIR ACC 7. The by returning to the and checking the program counter for the address of the . cycle repeats first step next instruction uesto's uestions Q Q 1.2 - The Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) Cycle: ​ . What is the ? [ 1 purpose of the registers 1 ] ​ . Describe : 2 the purpose of each register The [ a. Program Counter (PC) 1 ] The b. Memory Address Register (MAR) [ 1 ] The [ c. Memory Data Register (MDR) 1 ] The d. Current Instruction Register (CIR) [ 1 ] The [ e. Accumulator (ACC) 1 ] ​ Draw a diagram of the . [ 3. seven steps of the Fetch - Decode - Execute cycle 7 ] 1.1 - The CPU 1.3 - Primary Storage Theory Topics

  • 5.2 - Utility Software - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    5.2: Utility Software What is utility software? are used for the of a computer system. Utility software dedicated programs maintenance and organisation Antivirus Software Antivirus software is used to locate and delete viruses on a computer system. The antivirus scans each file on the computer and compares it against a database of known viruses . Files with similar features to viruses in the database are identified and deleted . There are thousands of known viruses but by attackers so antivirus software to keep systems secure. new ones are created each day must be regularly updated Other roles of an antivirus: all incoming and outgoing . Checking emails and their attachments . Checking files as they are downloaded . Scanning the hard drive for viruses and deleting them Firewall A . firewall manages incoming and outgoing network traffic to check whether it should be by examining the . Each data packet is processed given access to the network source and destination address ​ Unexpected packets will be out and to the network. data filtered not accepted Other roles of a firewall include: / malicious . Blocking access to insecure web sites certain from . Blocking programs accessing the internet unexpected / . Blocking unauthorised downloads specific on a network . Preventing users accessing certain files Defragmentation As files are edited over time they will become - this is when the file is that are on the . Files that are take and read because of the of the file. fragmented split into parts stored in different locations hard disk drive fragmented longer to load distance between the fragments is used to on the hard disk drive so that again in order. Defragmentation on the hard disk drive. Defragmentation software rearrange the file all parts are together improves the speed of accessing data Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + Disk Compression Compression is the process of decreasing the size of a file . is a utility tool that when saved so that on the hard disk drive. Disk compression automatically compresses files more data can be stored When a file is to be opened, the program is . Disk compression but it . automatically decompressed increases the amount of space on a hard disk drive takes longer to open and close files System Monitoring & Task Management These types of applications allow users to and see the processes that are currently running. Users will be able to see which programs are being executed and how much CPU time they are requiring. If a program has stopped responding, or is using too many resources, the user can close it. monitor system resources ​ is an example of this type of utility software - press Ctrl + Alt + Delete on any Windows computer to open it. Windows Task Manager ​ You can also find applications that will for any errors and attempt to repair them. scan the hard disc Disk Scanning & Repair This utility is used to for any . ​ scan a hard drive corrupted data ​ The to the hard drive. corrupted data is deleted speed up reading from and writing to ​ More advanced disk checkers are used to . A is a which can no longer be used and must be skipped over. scan for bad sectors bad sector permanently damaged section of the hard drive System Backup Not the same as traditional backup, system backup specifically and . saves a copy of the operating system essential data In the case of , the to a of the . data corruption system backup can be restored previously saved copy essential files and systems 5.2 - Utility Software: ​ What is meant by ? [ ] 1. utility software 1 ​ 2a. Describe how antivirus software works. [ 2 ] 2b. Describe 3 further roles of antivirus software . [ 3 ] ​ What is the of a ? 3a. purpose firewall [ 2 ] Describe of a . 3b. 3 further roles firewall [ 3 ] ​ Describe what is meant by . 4a. defragmentation [ 2 ] Explain software . 4b. why defragmentation is used [ 2 ] ​ Describe of using . 5. 2 benefits compression [ 2 ] Explain why could be . 6. task management software used [ 2 ] ​ Explain why are important. 7a. backups [ 2 ] Describe a . 7b. common type of backup policy [ 3 ] uesto's uestions Q Q 5.1 - Operating Systems Theory Topics 6.1 - Language Levels

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.2 - Computer Components | CSNewbs

    uesto's uestions Q Q 1.2 - Computer Components: ​ Vital Components: Describe the of the : 1. purpose following components The ( ) [ ] a. CPU Central Processing Unit 2 The [ ] b. motherboard 2 The ( ) [ ] c. PSU Power Supply Unit 2 ​ Primary Memory: [ ] What is the ? 2a. difference between primary and secondary memory 2 [ ] What is the ? 2b. difference between volatile and non-volatile storage 2 [ ] For each of the , describe its and give an of what it can store. 2c. three types of primary memory role example 6 ​ Secondary Storage: [ ] For , and storage these three secondary storage mediums in terms of , , and . 3a. magnetic optical solid-state rank capacity durability portability speed 9 For the following scenarios which should be used and why it is the : 3b. justify secondary storage medium most appropriate ​ [ ] Sending videos and pictures to family in Australia through the post. 3 [ ] Storing a presentation to take into work. 3 [ ] Storing project files with other members of a group to work on together. 3 [ ] Backing up an old computer with thousands of file to a storage device. 3 Additional Components: [ ] State the of . 4a. purpose five different expansion cards 5 [ ] What is the ? 4b. purpose of the motherboard 2 ​ Ports: [ ] Describe the . 5a. six different ports 6 [ ] What is the between ? 5b. difference SCSI and SAS 2 1.2 Computer Components Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 This page describe the various components inside of computer systems . The first three are necessary in every type of computer: Processor Motherboard Power Supply Unit A processor's main role is to manage the functions of a computer system by processing data and instructions . The primary processor of each computer system is the Central Processing Unit ( CPU ). The motherboard is the of a computer on which are . main circuit board components such as the CPU and ROM connected ​ The motherboard contains for and for external devices. PCI slots expansion cards ports The power supply unit (PSU) from (Alternating Current) from the mains power supply to (Direct Current) which the computer . converts electricity AC DC system can use ​ The PSU of desktop computers is whereas portable devices require an 'charger'. internal external Memory is split into two types - and . Memory volatile non-volatile is (data is lost whenever the power is turned off). Volatile storage temporary ​ ​ saves the data even when not being powered, so it can be accessed when the computer is next on and can be . Non-volatile storage stored long-term Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Cache Memory is (temporary) storage that . RAM also stores parts of the to be accessed by the CPU. RAM volatile stores all programs that are currently running operating system ​ RAM is made up of a large number of storage locations, each can be identified by a . unique address is storage that . ROM non-volatile cannot be changed ​ ROM stores the for when the computer is switched on. The BIOS then loads up the to take over managing the computer. boot program / BIOS operating system Cache memory is (temporary) storage that volatile . stores data that is frequently accessed It is because it is than other types of memory like RAM. very quick to access closer to the CPU RAM ( R andom A ccess M emory) ROM ( R ead O nly M emory) Cache Memory Secondary Storage Magnetic Storage Optical Storage Optical Storage Characteristics: ​ X : 700 MB ( ), 4.7 GB ( ), 25 GB ( ). - Low CAPACITY CD DVD Blu-ray X - Not DURABLE because discs are and can easily. very fragile break or scratch ✓ - Discs are and . thin very PORTABLE ​ X Optical discs have the . - Slowest ACCESS SPEED ​ ​ Magnetic Disks are spelled with a k and Optical Discs have a c. Magnetic Storage Characteristics: ​ ✓ - and . Large CAPACITY cheaper per gigabyte than solid state ​ X - and because moving it can the device. Not DURABLE not very PORTABLE when powered on damage ​ ​ ✓ - but . Relatively quick ACCESS SPEED slower than Solid State Optical storage uses a to project onto a spinning disc, allowing it to read data from a , or . laser beams of light CD DVD Blu-Ray ​ This makes optical storage the of the four types of secondary storage. slowest ​ Disc drives are traditionally but disc drives can be bought for devices like laptops. internal external A ( ) is the most common form of secondary storage within desktop computers. A moves nanometres above the disk platter and uses the magnetic field of the platter to read or edit data. Hard disk drives can also be and connected through a . magnetic hard disk drive HDD read/write head external USB port An obsolete (no longer used) type of magnetic storage is a but these have been such as USB sticks which are much faster and have a much higher capacity. floppy disk replaced by solid state devices Another type of magnetic storage that is still used is . Magnetic tape has a but data has to be accessed in order ( ) so it is generally only used by companies to back up or . magnetic tape high storage capacity serial access archive large amounts of data Solid State Storage Cloud Storage When you store data in 'the cloud', using services such as Google Drive or Dropbox, your data is stored on owned by the . The hosting company (such as Google) is responsible for keeping the servers running and making your data . large servers hosting company accessible on the internet ​ Cloud storage is typically of storage. For example, as of 2019, Dropbox allow 2 GB for free or 2 TB for £9.99 a month. free for a certain amount ​ Cloud storage is as it allows people to work on a file at the and it can be accessed from different devices. However, if the internet , or the servers are then the data could become . very convenient same time connection fails attacked inaccessible There are in solid state storage. no moving parts s ( ) are replacing magnetic HDDs (Hard DIsk Drives) in modern computers and video game consoles because they are generally SSD Solid State Drives , and use . quieter faster less power ​ A is another type of solid state storage that is used to transport files easily because of its small size. USB flash drive ( USB stick ) ​ , like the in a or a in a , are another example of solid state storage. Memory cards SD card digital camera Micro SD card smartphone Solid State Characteristics: ​ X - but per gigabyte . High CAPACITY more expensive than magnetic ​ ✓ - Usually but cheap USB sticks can . DURABLE snap or break ​ ✓ - The of USB sticks and memory cards mean they are very and can fit easily in a bag or pocket. small size PORTABLE ​ ✓ - Solid State storage has the because they contain . fastest ACCESS SPEED no moving parts Cloud Storage Characteristics: ​ ✓ - Huge and you can your subscription if you need more storage. CAPACITY upgrade ​ ✓ / X - Cloud storage is difficult to rank in terms of PORTABILITY , DURABILITY and ACCESS SPEED because it depends on your internet connection. A would mean that cloud storage is fast connection very portable (can be accessed on a smartphone or tablet) but a would make poor connection access difficult . Storage Protocols is a (set of rules) for to a computer system, such as a printer, storage drive or scanner. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) protocol attaching external devices is an that enables many (up to 128) to a computer system. SAS (Serial Attached SCSI) improved version of SCSI more external devices to be connected at the same time Expansion Cards (dedicated circuit boards) have a and are . Expansion cards specific purpose attached to the motherboard ​ Most of the following expansion cards can also exist as on the motherboard, rather than a separate card. integrated components Graphics Card (e.g. videos or animations) and converts it into a on a . Processes graphical data displayable output monitor Network Interface Card (NIC) Sound Card 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 Sound cards into when through a microphone.​ convert analogue sound waves digital data (binary) inputting audio Sound cards also into to through speakers or headphones. convert digital data (binary) analogue sound waves output audio 0010 1011 0101 0101 0110 0111 0101 0001 0101 Allows computers to (such as the ) and enables them to to other computers. connect to networks Internet transfer data Transfers across a network. data between servers Fibre channel allows for and is primarily used to in large data centres. quick transfer speeds connect data storage to servers Fibre Channel Card Storage Controller Card Required for the computer to . manage and use any attached storage devices Ports A is the . Ports from and to these devices. port interface between external devices and the computer allow data to be transferred USB Port Connects storage devices such as USB sticks or external hard drives . Connects input devices such as a keyboard or mouse, as well as other devices for data transfer such as a camera or smartphone. Ethernet Port Connects computers to network devices such as a modem or router, allowing access to the internet . Firewire Port Similar to USB but developed for Apple products, Firewire transfers data at a high speed from devices such as camcorders and external hard drives . SATA Port Allows data transfer to external HDD , SSD or optical drives . SD Port Enables data from an SD card to be transferred from a device like a camera to the computer. Micro SD Port Allows data from a micro SD card to be transferred from devices such as smartphones , tablets and handheld games consoles to a computer. 1.1 - Computer Hardware Topic List 1.3 - Computer System Types

  • 1.6 - Information Formats | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.6 - Information Formats Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The following formats are used to on the . display information internet Web Pages Web pages can be used for a diverse range of purposes including products, , (online shopping). advertising reporting information displaying images and eCommerce ​ There are two types of web page: Static web page contain content that is and . Static web pages pre-built remains the same each time the page is loaded ​ Static web pages are and and ; they use basic HTML. cheaper easier to create load quicker It can be changed by the site editor but will for everyone who has access to it, such as a classic promotional website for a small company. appear the same Dynamic web page are and can . Dynamic web pages generated when they are loaded appear different to different users Dynamic web pages are but they can be to whoever is viewing the site; they are written in server-side languages like PHP. harder to code linked to databases to allow them to show personalised content ​ The Amazon homepage is an example of a dynamic web page as personalised deals based on previous user history will be shown if you are logged in with an account. Blogs Blogs are used to with like-minded individuals, such as those who enjoy the same . , and other businesses also use blogs as a way of with what they have done or what they are working on. Blogs can feature such as text, images, videos and links to other sites. share information hobbies or beliefs Charities game developers updating their customer base multimedia Advantages of Blogs Disadvantages of Blogs ✓ Share information with followers in the format of text, images and video . ​ ✓ Blogs and vlogs can unite people with similar interests , such as a cookery blog or travel vlog. Takes a lot of to create posts, especially if need to be edited before posting. Potential customers could be lost if blogs aren't . X effort and time videos updated regularly ​ X It can be difficult to build up a customer base directly from a blog. Posts must be engaging , researched and correct . Podcasts A podcast is a , usually on a certain topic such as sports or gaming that can be for the user. Spotify and Apple Music have a wide library of podcasts. downloadable audio file listened to when convenient Advantages of Podcasts Disadvantages of Podcasts ✓ Podcasts are not (usually) recorded live , so they can be edited and uploaded at a certain time each week. ​ ✓ Podcasts can be listened to when convenient for the user, so they can't 'miss' it and can catch up when is best for them. ​ ✓ Podcasts are becoming more and more popular , so the possible audience base is growing each year. Celebrity guests are one way to entice more listeners. Takes to record a podcast, especially if they need to be to add in music or sound effects or to . X time edited remove mistakes ​ X It can be difficult to build up an audience directly from a podcast. Podcasts should be on a topic that interests people and spoken in an engaging way. Streamed Audio & Video Streaming is the process of in a . This allows the user to the video / audio , without having to wait for the file to download entirely. receiving video / audio data continuous flow access immediately For example, the BBC provide for their radio shows and BBC iPlayer allows users to watch that previously aired. is a widely-used streamed video platform and is a popular streamed audio service. live radio streaming online 'catch up' programs YouTube Spotify Advantages of Streamed Media Disadvantages of Streamed Media ✓ Streaming does not require data to be downloaded entirely before use - users can watch / listen as soon as the connection starts . ​ ✓ Streaming is harder for users to share than downloading a file . Netflix uses this as a form of piracy protection . Streaming requires so users may suffer on . X high bandwidth performance issues slower devices and networks ​ X Streaming requires a constant network connection compared to downloadable media which can be used when offline / outside. Social Media Channels Social media channels provide a on users in an informal space. Organisations can through user . like views, likes and shares provide an insight to . huge amount of data receive feedback posts and comments Real-time statistics user opinion ​ Social media channels include traditional sites such as and as well as business and such as . , such as , are increasingly popular for users to discuss similar hobbies and interests such as politics, gaming and healthy eating. Facebook Twitter recruitment platforms LinkedIn Discussion boards and forums Reddit Advantages of Social Media Disadvantages of Social Media ✓ Social media can increase a business' online presence as it is online 24/7 for users to comment and interact with posts. ​ ✓ Posts can be shared between users and their contacts, allowing a post to 'go viral' and be seen by potentially millions of viewers . ​ ✓ Posts can be shared in different information styles such as text , images , video or hyperlinks to other websites. ​ ✓ Businesses can use social media to communicate with their customer s , such as direct messages on Facebook if a customer is unhappy. Businesses may need to to , update posts and remove spam. X hire a social media manager interact with customers ​ X Negative posts can be shared and spread very quickly , such as if a customer complains about how a business treated them poorly. ​ X Businesses must be cautious about what they post , to not accidentally offend others and damage their reputation . Emails Emails can be used to provide information to a of people . A company may use an email to , inform potential customers of a or based on previous interactions. large amount almost instantly advertise new products marketing promotion target specific users Advantages of Emails Disadvantages of Emails ✓ Faster (almost instant) and cheaper (usually free) to send an email compared to traditional letters . ​ ✓ Files can be attached to the email, such as images, videos or forms to complete. ​ ✓ An audit trail can be kept, recording communication between the company and its customers. ​ ✓ Emails can be sent, delivered and read at the user's convenience and to any internet-enabled device across the world . An to open and read the email. Larger attachments may not open on mobile devices. X internet connection is required ​ X Malware can spread through email attachments. Phishers use emails to gain access to personal information and account details . ​ X Some attachments sent via email may be unreadable on different devices / operating systems. ​ X Emails may automatically go into the spam / junk folder and be deleted without being read . Document Stores allow users to . Common services are , and Microsoft's . Storing documents in the cloud allows users to edit and and . Many organisations offer cloud storage space for up to a certain amount before charging customers for more data. Document stores store online files in cloud storage Google Drive Dropbox OneDrive access them from any location with an internet connection opens up opportunities for collaboration free ​ Document stores are very and replace the need for portable storage devices like USB sticks. Teachers can use documents stores to share resources with other staff in a . convenient for users school Documents stores can only be accessed with an internet connection so files will be during maintenance or network failure. Users rely on the cloud hosting provider, such as Microsoft and Google to keep the and . unavailable data secure available RSS Feeds RSS Feeds (short for ) allow users to from their favourite websites. It is a web feed that whenever a subscribed site releases new information. For example, the BBC used to post updates for important news headlines which appeared in a subscribed user's RSS feed. Rich Site Summary subscribe to updates updates As of 2020 and it is . most browsers no longer have built-in RSS functionality rarely used uesto's uestions Q Q 1.6 - Information Formats: ​ Describe the difference between . [ ] 1. static and dynamic web pages 4 ​ For each type of describe its . 2. information format advantages and disadvantages Blogs [ ] a. 8 Podcasts [ ] b. 8 Streamed Audio / Video [ ] c. 8 Social Media [ ] d. 8 Emails [ ] e. 8 ​ Explain how could be used by . [ ] 3. document stores organisations and individuals 4 ​ Explain what an is and how an . [ ] 4. RSS feed organisation could use it 3 1.5 - WWW Technologies Topic List 1.7 & 1.8 - Internet Pros & Cons

  • 1.5 - WWW Technologies | Unit 2 | OCR Cambridge Technicals | CSNewbs

    1.5 - WWW Technologies Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 2 The internet is a of . global network interconnected networks ​ The ( ) is as the internet. It is a , using protocols such as to . world wide web WWW not the same way of accessing information HTTPS view web pages ​ There are three types of : world wide web technologies Internet Intranet Extranet The i internet s a global network of interconnected networks . ​ The internet is and users have . public open access ​ ​ Examples of use: Accessing to and . Businesses may use web pages to their products and allow customers to items. web pages shop watch videos advertise purchase An intranet is a that is only (e.g. members of a business or school). private network accessible to authorised users Intranets are and users have . private closed access ​ Examples of use: often use an intranet to to that displays information for teachers and students (such as or ). might use an intranet for employees to see and or for because it can be . Because an intranet is a secured online area , schools log in test results upcoming events Businesses sales performance data communication accessed remotely An extranet is a private network that is but provides . accessible using the internet access only to authorised users ​ Extranets are and users have . private shared access ​ Example of use: (like use an extranet to allow hotel owners to to access and update their information. Hotel booking companies log in via the internet Network Characteristics When connecting to there are several that a user must consider:​ WWW technologies characteristics Speed Speed refers to how quickly data can be accessed . For example, an extranet is the slowest network to use because it must be accessed through the internet first. Security Security relates to how likely the data will be kept secure . An intranet is more secure than the internet because only authorised users can log in. Access Levels Access levels , or permissions , refers to who can see what, in terms of data and files . Resources on an intranet can be set so that only certain users can view them. Accessibility This characteristic relates to how available the data is . For example, the internet can be accessed on any network-enabled device, at any time . uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - WWW Technologies: ​ Explain the difference between the and the . [ ] 1. internet world wide web 2 ​ Describe each of the . You must mention whether they are and what they have. 2. 3 types of WWW technology private or public type of access Internet a. Intranet b. Extranet [ ] c. 2 each ​ Describe at least of how each of the could be . [ ] 3. one example 3 types of WWW technology used 6 ​ Describe the in terms of each of the . You need to think carefully about this; the descriptions under each icon above can help you with certain answers. To start, describe the of an . [ ] 4. 3 WWW technologies 4 network characteristics speed, security, access levels and accessibility intranet 12 each 1.4 - Internet Connections Topic List 1.6 - Information Formats

  • OCR CTech IT | Unit 1 | 1.5 - Communication Hardware | CSNewbs

    1.5: Communication Hardware Exam Board: OCR Specification: 2016 - Unit 1 The devices on this page are used to , allowing to be . create or link together networks data sent between computer systems Hub A hub from a connected device and . receives data packets transfers a copy to all connected nodes Switch A switch , processes them and pecifically listed in the of the packet. receives data packets transfers them on to the device s destination address Modem Modems are used to . send data across the telephone network The can so a modem is used to into an . telephone lines only transfer analog signals convert a computer's digital data analog signal Another at the receiving end. modem converts the signal back to a digital format Router Routers are used to . transfer data packets between networks Data is sent from network to network on the internet towards the listed in the data packet. destination address A router stores the and uses to calculate the . address of each computer on the network routing tables quickest and shortest path Wireless Access Point (WAP) Provides a link . It creates a that allows WiFi enabled devices to connect to a wired network. between wireless and wired networks wireless local area network Combined Device Also known as a , this provides the (e.g modem, router, switch and/or wireless access point) . hybrid device functionality of multiple communication devices in a single device They can be than a single device but are - if the routing part of the device fails it might as a switch / wireless access point etc. more expensive more adaptable still be able to function ​ However, you will see an increased performance from a standalone device rather than a combined one as standalone devices have more complex features (e.g. VPN support). Network Interface Card (Network Adapter) A (often shorted to ) is an that is . Network Interface Card NIC internal piece of hardware required for the computer to connect to a network It used to be a separate expansion card but now it is commonly (and known as a ). built directly into the motherboard network adapter allow wireless network connection. Wireless network interface cards uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - Communication Hardware: [ ] What is the ? 1. difference between a hub and a switch 2 [ ] Explain how a works. 2. modem 3 [ ] Explain the . 3. purpose of a router 2 [ ] What is a ( )? 4. Wireless Access Point WAP 2 [ ] Describe what is meant by a ' '. Give and of using a combined device. 5. combined device one advantage one disadvantage 3 1.4 - Connectivity 1.6 - Hardware Troubleshooting Topic List

  • 1.5 - Performance - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.5: Performance Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + The system is affected by main factors: performance of a computer three Cache Memory What is cache memory? ​ Cache memory is for . temporary storage frequently accessed data How does cache memory improve performance? Cache memory is , meaning that it can provide . closer to the CPU than RAM data and instructions to the CPU at a faster rate ​ A computer with more cache memory (e.g. 8MB instead of 4MB) should have a higher performance because can be stored and . repeatedly used instructions accessed faster What is the limitation of cache memory? Cache memory is so most computers only have a . costly, small amount Clock Speed What is clock speed? is the measure of . Clock speed how quickly a CPU can process instructions ​ Clock speed is . A typical desktop computer might have a clock speed of . measured in Gigahertz (GHz) 3.5 GHz This means it can perform . 3.5 billion cycles a second How does clock speed improve performance? ​ The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer can perform the FDE cycle resulting in because . better performance more instructions can be processed each second How does overclocking and underclocking affect performance? Typical clock speed: 3.5 GHz Underclocking Overclocking 3.9 GHz 3.1 GHz Overclocking is when the computer's clock speed is increased higher than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform faster, but it can lead to overheating and could damage the machine . Underclocking is when the computer's clock speed is decreased lower than the recommended rate. ​ This will make the computer perform slower but will increase the lifespan of the machine . Number of Cores What is a core? ​ A is a (control unit, ALU and registers). Each core is able to . core complete set of CPU components perform its own FDE cycle ​ A has within the same CPU. multi-core CPU more than one set of components How does the number of cores improve performance? ​ In theory, a single-core processor can , a processor can and a . execute one instruction at a time dual-core execute two instructions, quad-core can execute four instructions simultaneously ​ Therefore, a will have a because it can . computer with more cores higher performance process more instructions at once What are the limitations of having more cores? ​ If to finish processing, at all. one core is waiting for another core performance may not increase ​ , so it will on a multi-core computer. Some software is not written to make use of multiple cores not run any quicker uesto's uestions Q Q 1.5 - Performance: ​ Cache Size & Levels What is ? [ 1a. cache memory 2 ] Describe that 1b. two ways more c will mean . [ ache memory performance is higher 4 ] Explain why only have a memory. [ 1c. most computers small amount of cache 1 ] Clock Speed What is ? What is it in? [ 2a. clock speed measured 2 ] Explain how a . [ 2b. higher clock speed improves performance 2 ] Explain the terms ' ' and ' ' and explain the of both on the of a computer. [ 2c. overclocking underclocking effects performance 4 ] ​ Number of Cores What is a ? [ 3a. core 2 ] Explain why a should have a than a . [ 3b. quad-core processor higher performance dual-core processor 3 ] Explain two reasons why having the . [ 3c. more cores doesn't necessarily mean performance will be better 2 ] 1.4 - Secondary Storage 1.6 - Buses & Instruction Sets Theory Topics

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