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  • Computer Science Newbies

    C omputer S cience Newb ie s CSNewbs is aimed at GCSE Computer Science and OCR Cambridge Technicals IT students . ​ The site is viewed in the UK and internationally by thousands of users each week . ​ Click here for frequently asked questions and information about CSNewbs . ​ TEACHER RESOURCES ! Take a free sneak peek at the Eduqas GCSE resources coming soon ! Quick links to popular topics on CSNewbs: Python You are viewing the mobile version of CSNewbs. The site may appear better on a desktop or laptop . Eduqas GCSE Topics CSNewbs last updated: Tuesday, 1st December, 2020 You are viewing the desktop version of CSNewbs. Have you tried it on mobile ? OCR Cambridge Technicals Level 3 IT

  • Malware | Key Stage 3 | CSNewbs

    Malware Malware is any type of harmful program that seeks to damage or gain unauthorised access to your computer system. Part 1: SiX Types of Malware Virus A virus can replicate itself and spread from system to system by attaching itself to infected files . A virus is only activated when opened by a human . Once activated, a virus can change data or corrupt a system so that it stops working . Worm A worm can replicate itself and spread from system to system by finding weaknesses in software . A worm does not need an infected file or human interaction to spread. A worm can spread very quickly across a network once it has infiltrated it. Trojan A trojan is a harmful program that looks like legitimate software so users are tricked into installing it . A trojan secretly gives the attacker backdoor access to the system . Trojans do not self replicate or infect other files. Ransomware Ransomware locks files on a computer system using encryption so that a user can no longer access them. The attacker demands money from the victim to decrypt (unlock) the data . ? ? Attackers usually use digital currencies like bitcoin which makes it hard to trace them. Spyware Spyware secretly records the activities of a user on a computer. The main aim of spyware is to record usernames, passwords and credit card information . All recorded information is secretly passed back to the attacker to use. Keylogger A keylogger secretly records the key presses of a user on a computer. Data is stored or sent back to the attacker. The main aim of a keylogger is to record usernames, passwords and credit card information . Keyloggers can be downloaded or plugged into the USB port . Part 2: Four ways malware cAN infect your system 1. A ccidentally downloading an infected file from an insecure website . 2. Phishing emails - clicking on attachments or links in spam emails . 3. Installing malware from a physical device, e.g. USB stick . 4. Self-replicating malware , such as worms , spreading across a network . Phishing & Staying Safe

  • Key Stage 3 | CSNewbs

    Key Stage 3 Topics Hardware Python Basics 1. Motherboard 2. The CPU 3. Memory 4. Expansion Cards 1. The Basics 2. Variables 3. Inputs 4. Calculations 5. Selection 6. Turtle 7. Link to GCSE Python App Inventor 2 1. Getting Started 2. Tasks 1 & 2 3. Task 3 4. Tasks 4, 5 & 6 5. Task 7 Cyber Security 1. Malware 2. Phishing & Staying Safe Desktop Publishing (DTP) Desktop Publishing

  • Desktop Publishing | CSNewbs

    Desktop Publishing (DTP) What is DTP? Desktop Publishing (DTP) software allows people to . Examples of desktop publishing software are . create documents with a mixture of graphics and text Microsoft Publisher and Serif PagePlus ​ Desktop publishers can be used to produce documents such as business . cards, leaflets, brochures, newspapers, magazines and newsletters DTP software can be cheap and printers at home are more common these days so people can design and print their own documents. Professional-looking documents can be made simply and without an extensive knowledge of graphic design. ​ The biggest advantage of using DTP is that it is . Text and picture frames can be laid out on the page, and rotated, moved or resized as necessary. It is easy to import images from or the web. frame based clip art ​ The view of the page is known as ( hat ou ee s hat ou et) because the view on the computer will be very similar to what you get when it is printed. WYSIWYG W Y S I W Y G What to consider when using DTP Orientation Will your document be or ? Some document types are more commonly one orientation than the other. For example, business cards are generally landscape but newsletters are more often portrait. landscape portrait ​ Size The size of a typical piece of paper is A4. But that is too large for most DTP documents. . A5 is half the size of A4 and A3 is twice the size of A4. Documents can also be measured in millimetres, for example, an appropriate business card size is 85mm wide and 55mm high. The larger the number, the smaller the piece of paper House Style A house style is a set of rules to ensure that each document made by a person or company is . To be , each document should use the same . For example, the NHS always uses a blue colour, the same logo and similar layout on each of its documents. Some companies have perfected their house style so that they are synonymous with a single colour - e.g. use and use . part of an identity consistent logo, titles, colours, graphics and layout McDonald's yellow Coca-Cola and red white DTP Documents Business Cards A business card is a small piece of card that must be . simple and stylish The purpose of a business card is to clearly state the of a person or company. Sharing your business card with other people is one way to promote your business or skills to attract new business partners or customers. contact details A business card must be and clearly display relevant contact information, such as an email address, phone number or physical address. Today, business cards may also state social media contacts, such as Facebook pages or Twitter accounts. uncluttered Flyers A flyer is a small or new product. handout that advertises an event ​ The purpose of a flyer is to . It must be so that people can immediately understand what it is about. Flyers are often handed out in the street or posted through letterboxes so if it is not clear people will just ignore it. clearly and quickly promote an event eye-catching and to-the-point ​ A flyer should use a to promote the event, as well as appropriate and about the date, location and time. It should also contain contact details including a telephone number, website and email address. large title graphics information Posters A poster is a large piece of paper that is put up to . advertise an event and display more information than a flyer ​ Posters should promote an event by using to clearly describe where the event is taking place, when it is and why people should go. Because there is much more space on a poster than a flyer, can be added and some kind of to entice passers by to attend. large titles and graphics additional information persuasion Leaflets A leaflet is a small or new product. folded handout that provides more information about an event ​ The purpose of a leaflet is to give . It can be used before an event to describe the different parts, such as the different acts in a circus or different bands at a festival. It can also be used during an event, such as at a school fair to list the different stalls. Because it is folded over it can display a . additional details about an event large amount of information, with both text and graphics ​ The front of the leaflet should clearly display the purpose of it and the text inside must be readable with images to break up the words. There may also be contact information inside the leaflet, such as directions to a or . website social media page

  • 1.1 - The CPU - Eduqas GCSE (2020 spec) | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC 1.1 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Specification: 2020 + The is the most important component in any computer system. Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) ​ The purpose of the CPU is to by constantly repeating the . process data and instructions fetch - decode - execute cycle CPU Components The control unit directs the flow of data and information into the CPU. It also controls the other parts of the CPU . ALU stands for ‘ Arithmetic and Logic Unit ’. It performs simple calculations and logical operations . The registers are temporary storage spaces for data and instructions inside the CPU. ​ The registers are used during the FDE cycle . ​ Five essential registers are explained in 1.2 . Cache memory is used to temporarily store data that is frequently accessed . ​ Cache memory is split into different levels . Level 1 and level 2 (L1 & L2) are usually within the CPU and level 3 (L3) is just outside it. See 1.3 and 1.5 for more information about cache. You should know: The control unit is also known as the controller and cache memory is sometimes called internal memory . Computer Architecture The way a computer is and laid out is known as its . designed architecture ​ The most common type of computer architecture is . Von Neumann Von Neumann Architecture The is the most important component in as it is constantly and . CPU Von Neumann architecture fetching and decoding instructions from RAM controlling the other parts of the system ​ also stores both . Von Neumann architecture instructions and data in memory Being able to store programs in allows computers to be re-programmed for other tasks - this enables it to and run several applications at the same time. memory multitask ​ Data is another key feature of this architecture. input and output ​ An , which features the control unit as the most essential component. alternative architecture is Harvard uesto's uestions Q Q 1.1 - The Central Processing Unit (CPU): ​ What does ' ' ? [ 1a. CPU stand for 1 ] What is the ? [ 1b. purpose of the CPU 2 ] ​ , use the same symbols as shown on this page. [ 2a. Draw a diagram of the CPU 4 ] Label the of the CPU. [ 2b. four main components 4 ] ​ Describe the of: 3. purpose The [ a. Control Unit 2 ] The [ b. ALU 2 ] The [ c. registers 2 ] [ d. Cache memory 2 ] ​ Describe the . [ 4a. key features of Von Neumann architecture 3 ] Explain why is important. [ 4b. storing data in memory 1 ] State an . [ 4c . alternative architecture 1 ] Theory Topics 1.2 - The FDE Cycle

  • 1.1 - The CPU - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC 1.1 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Specification: 2016 + The is the most important component in any computer system. Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) ​ The purpose of the CPU is to by constantly repeating the . process data and instructions fetch - decode - execute cycle CPU Components The control unit directs the flow of data and information into the CPU. It also controls the other parts of the CPU . ALU stands for ‘ Arithmetic and Logic Unit ’. It performs simple calculations and logical operations . The registers are temporary storage spaces for data and instructions inside the CPU. ​ The registers are used during the FDE cycle . ​ Five essential registers are explained in 1.2 . Cache memory is used to temporarily store data that is frequently accessed . ​ Cache memory is split into different levels . Level 1 and level 2 (L1 & L2) are usually within the CPU and level 3 (L3) is just outside it. See 1.3 and 1.5 for more information about cache. You should know: The control unit is also known as the controller and cache memory is sometimes called internal memory . Computer Architecture The way a computer is and laid out is known as its . designed architecture ​ The most common type of computer architecture is . Von Neumann Von Neumann Architecture The is the most important component in as it is constantly and . CPU Von Neumann architecture fetching and decoding instructions from RAM controlling the other parts of the system ​ also stores both . Von Neumann architecture instructions and data in memory Being able to store programs in allows computers to be re-programmed for other tasks - this enables it to and run several applications at the same time. memory multitask ​ Data is another key feature of this architecture. input and output ​ An , which features the control unit as the most essential component. alternative architecture is Harvard uesto's uestions Q Q 1.1 - The Central Processing Unit (CPU): ​ What does ' ' ? [ 1a. CPU stand for 1 ] What is the ? [ 1b. purpose of the CPU 2 ] ​ , use the same symbols as shown on this page. [ 2a. Draw a diagram of the CPU 4 ] Label the of the CPU. [ 2b. four main components 4 ] ​ Describe the of: 3. purpose The [ a. Control Unit 2 ] The [ b. ALU 2 ] The [ c. registers 2 ] [ d. Cache memory 2 ] ​ Describe the . [ 4a. key features of Von Neumann architecture 3 ] Explain why is important. [ 4b. storing data in memory 1 ] State an . [ 4c . alternative architecture 1 ] 1.2 - The FDE Cycle Theory Topics

  • 6.1 - Operating Systems - Eduqas GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    6.1: Operating Systems Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + What is an Operating System? An ( ) is . operating system OS software that helps to manage the resources of a computer system There are of an operating system: eight main roles Manage the CPU A critical role of the OS is to so that can be . manage the CPU applications and processes run efficiently ​ The CPU is effectively managed by performing three further roles: Manage Memory (RAM) The OS for stored into. The to carry out the instructions. reserves memory space in RAM programs to be copied FDE cycle is executed continuously ​ The OS also ensures that programs are appropriately managed so that data is and . stored in correct memory locations not corrupted Manage Interrupts A interrupt is an alert signal sent to the CPU when an application or hardware device requires immediate attention . The OS must efficiently manage interrupts so that a problem can be dealt with quickly if one occurs. Manage Multi-Tasking The OS manages tasks so instructions can be executed by - this is called . the CPU in turn scheduling The OS with others and crashing. Tasks should even though only one process can be executed at a time. prevents processes from interfering appear to run simultaneously Manage Backing Store The is another term for such as the magnetic , optical drives or solid state memory sticks. backing store secondary storage devices hard disk drive ​ The OS ensures data is stored correctly and can be from the backing store. efficiently retrieved Files are organised in a hierarchical (logical) structure . Manage Peripherals A is an connected to a computer system to or . peripheral external device input output data The OS manages the (such as a keyboard or mouse) and the (such as a monitor or speaker). receiving of data from input devices transfer of data to output devices Manage Security The OS a llows users to with different permissions. It also permits multiple users to . create, manage and delete accounts log in and change passwords ​ and software is managed by the OS as well as some processes. Antivirus firewall data encryption Manage the User Interface The final function of an operating system is to provide a user interface , allowing a human to interact with the computer system . The way in which a user can navigate a computer system is known as human-computer interaction ( HCI ). Graphical User Interface (GUI) The most common type of user interface is a ( ) which can be presented in the following ways: graphical user interface GUI are displayed to represent to applications and files. Icons shortcuts can be opened at the same time and switched between. Multiple windows A is displayed and allowing for , , and data. folder and file system manipulated copying searching sorting deleting The interface can be , such as changing font sizes and the . customised desktop background The taskbar allows shortcuts to be pinned for quick access . Menus can be opened from the Start button to display files and shortcuts. can be accessed such as . System settings network and hardware options uesto's uestions Q Q 6.1 - Operating Systems: ​ 1. Describe each role of the operating system : 1. Manage the CPU [ 2 ] 2. Manage memory [ 2 ] 3. Manage interrupts [ 2 ] 4. Manage multi-tasking [ 2 ] 5. Manage backing store [ 2 ] 6. Manage peripherals [ 2 ] 7. Manage security [ 2 ] 8. Manage the user interface [ 2 ] ​ [ 2. Describe 5 different ways the operating system can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) . 5 ] ​ 3. Describe two advantages and two disadvantages of using the following types of human-computer interaction (HCI) : a. Command-Line interface [ 4 ] b. Touch-Sensitive interface [ 4 ] c. Menu-Driven interface [ 4 ] d. Voice-Driven interface [ 4 ] Command-Line Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a ( ). command-line interface CLI This type of interface is and requires users to interact with the system by . This is a process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only who have been o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. entirely text-based typing commands complicated experts trained t Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface . Examples include (ATMs) and . displays data in a series of linked menus cash machines old iPods ​ This type of interface is generally and as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be through a large number of menus without a search feature. user friendly easy to use annoying to find specific data Touch-Sensitive Interface Another type of user interface is a , used with . touch-sensitive interface smartphones and tablets ​ A human interacts with the device by , making it and without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may and it will compared to using a keyboard. pressing on a touchscreen very intuitive suitable for most users not work with dirty or wet fingers take longer to write text Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's devices, Apple's technology and . controlled by speaking commands aloud Alexa Siri Google Home ​ This interface is , can be used and helps to . However or in what can be performed. intuitive hands-free speed up processes commands may be misheard limited 5.1 - Data Structures Theory Topics 6.2 - Utility Software

  • 3.9 - Protection Against Threats - GCSE (2020 Spec) | CSNewbs

    3.9: Protection Against Threats Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2020 + Network Forensics & Penetration Testing What is network forensics? is the to . Network forensics is used to on a network and to about how the network is performing. Network forensics monitoring of a network identify unauthorised intrusions record and analyse attacks gather other information ​ It is important for organisations to so that identify weaknesses in their networks they or malware. can fix them and be prepared for any type of attack ​ Footprinting - Footprinting is one method of . This is when a by about the . evaluating a network’s security security team puts itself in the attacker’s shoes obtaining all publicly available information organisation and its network Footprinting allows the company to could find out about a system. The company can then about its systems that is . discover how much detail a potential attacker limit the technical information publicly available Penetration Tests are carried out as part of ethical hacking. Penetration tests Ethical hacking is when an organisation gives to specific ' ' to try and attack a system so that the and then fixed. permission good hackers weak points can be highlighted The purpose of a penetration test is to review the system's security to and to . find any risks or weaknesses fix them ​ There are : four main types of penetration tests are to see how much by somebody with a registered account. Internal tests damage could be done within the company are for white hat hackers to try and . External tests infiltrate a system from outside the company are done with , to would have to do to infiltrate the system. Blind tests no inside information simulate what a real attacker + are conducted by the company's and the cooperating together to find faults in the system. Targeted tests IT department penetration team Anti-Malware & Firewalls Anti-Malware Software Anti-malware software is used to locate and delete malware, like viruses, on a computer system. The software scans each file on the computer and compares it against a database of known malware . Files with similar features to malware in the database are identified and deleted . There are thousands of known malware, but by attackers, so anti-malware software to keep systems secure. new forms are created each day must be regularly updated Other roles of anti-malware software: all incoming and outgoing . Checking emails and their attachments . Checking files as they are downloaded . Scanning the hard drive for viruses and deleting them Firewall A . firewall manages incoming and outgoing network traffic to check whether it should be by examining the . Each data packet is processed given access to the network source and destination address ​ Unexpected packets will be out and to the network. data filtered not accepted Other roles of a firewall include: / malicious . Blocking access to insecure web sites certain from . Blocking programs accessing the internet unexpected / . Blocking unauthorised downloads specific on a network . Preventing users accessing certain files Other Methods of Protection Double Authentication Also known as ( ), this is a method of someone's by requiring , such as a password and a pin code sent to a mobile. two-factor authentication 2FA confirming identity two forms of authorisation 4392 Secure Passwords Usernames must be matched with a to the chances of a system. secure password minimise unauthorised users accessing ​ Passwords should contain a mix of uppercase and lowercase , . Passwords should be of a substantial (at least 8 characters) and should be . letters punctuation and numbers length regularly changed ******** User Access Levels are used to particular files. Access levels only allow certain users to access and edit ' Read-Only ' access is when a user can only view a file and is not allowed to change any data . ​ For example, a teacher might set homework instructions as for students to view. read-only ' Read and Write ' access allows a user to read and edit the data in a file. ​ For example, a teacher might set an online workbook as access for students to fill in. read and write so that can view and change data. The more users who have access to a file, the more likely it is to be compromised. Certain users may also have to a file - when they can't view or edit it. It is important to set access levels only authorised users no access Encryption is the process of into an so that it during transmission. Encryption scrambling data unreadable format attackers cannot understand if intercepted ​ The (known as ) is using an . Only at the correct destination will the be used to back into to be understood by the receiving computer. original data plaintext converted to scrambled ciphertext encryption key encryption key convert the ciphertext plaintext ​ A very simple method of encryption is to use the . is used on the to . Using on the will reverse the encryption to . XOR logical operator XOR plaintext and key together create the ciphertext XOR again ciphertext and key reveal the plaintext Encryption using XOR = 00110100 Plaintext = Key 10100110 XOR = 10010010 Ciphertext Decryption using XOR ​ = 10010010 Ciphertext = / Key 10100110 XOR = 00110100 Plaintext uesto's uestions Q Q 3.9 - Protection Against Threats: ​ 1a. What is network forensics ? Why is it important ? [ 3 ] [ 1b. Explain what is meant by footprinting and why companies do it . 2 ] [ 2. What is an ethical hacker ? 2 ] [ 3a. Describe the purpose of penetration tests . 2 ] 3b. Describe each type of penetration test . [ 8 ] ​ 4. Describe the purpose of anti-malware software and its different roles . [ 4 ] 5. Describe the purpose of a firewall and its different roles . [ 4 ] ​ [ 6a. Describe double authentication . 2 ] 6b. State three rules for choosing a strong password . [ 3 ] 7. Describe the three types of access level . [ 6 ] [ 8a. Describe the purpose of encryption . 2 ] 8b. Explain how encryption works, using the terms plaintext , key and ciphertext . [ 4 ] 3.8 - Cyber Threats Theory Topics 4.1 - Number Systems

  • 1.2 - The FDE Cycle - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    1.2: The FDE Cycle Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + The is performed by the millions of times every second. Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) cycle CPU ​ This cycle is how the for each program or service that requires its attention. CPU processes data and instructions Important Registers A is a for in the . register small storage space temporary data CPU ​ Each register has a . There are three essential registers used in the specific role FDE cycle : Program Counter (PC) A register that tracks the RAM address of the next instruction to be fetched . Memory Address Register (MAR) A register that tracks the RAM address of data that is currently being accessed . Current Instruction Register (CIR) A register that stores the instruction that has been fetched from RAM , and is about to be decoded or executed . Fetch - Decode - Execute Cycle The essential idea of the FDE cycle is that , to be (understood) and . instructions are fetched from RAM decoded executed (processed) by the CPU 1. The ( ) register displays the of the . Program Counter PC address in RAM next instruction to be processed This value is the ( ). copied into Memory Address Register MAR 0054 2. The register is . PC increased by 1 ​ This for the to be fetched. prepares the CPU next instruction 0055 3. The CPU which held . checks the address in RAM matches the address in the MAR 0054 4. The is ( ). instruction in RAM transferred to the Current Instruction Register CIR CIR 5. The is (understood) and (processed) by the most - such as the for a calculation. instruction in the CIR decoded executed appropriate component ALU 6. The by returning to the and checking the program counter for the address of the . cycle repeats first step next instruction uesto's uestions Q Q 1.2 - The Fetch - Decode - Execute (FDE) Cycle: ​ . What is the ? [ 1 purpose of the registers 2 ] ​ . Describe : 2 the purpose of each register The [ a. Program Counter (PC) 1 ] The b. Memory Address Register (MAR) [ 1 ] The c. Current Instruction Register (CIR) [ 1 ] ​ Draw a diagram of the . [ 3. six steps of the Fetch - Decode - Execute cycle 6 ] These are not the only registers but the main three used as part of the FDE cycle. Other registers exist, such as the accumulator , which stores the result of calculations made by the ALU . 1.1 - The CPU Theory Topics 1.3 - Primary Storage

  • 5.1 - Operating Systems - Eduqas GCSE (2016 Spec) | CSNewbs

    (storing data in a ) to print documents . The user can do other tasks instead of waiting. Checks the printer is free then uses spooling queue in order 5.1: Operating Systems Exam Board: Eduqas / WJEC Specification: 2016 + What is an Operating System? An ( ) is . operating system OS software that helps to manage the resources of a computer system ​ There are of an operating system: seven main roles Manage Memory (RAM) The OS for stored into. The to carry out the instructions. reserves memory space in RAM programs to be copied FDE cycle is executed continuously ​ The OS also ensures that programs are appropriately managed so that data is and . stored in correct memory locations not corrupted Manage Processes The OS manages tasks so instructions can be executed by - this is called . the CPU in turn scheduling The OS with others and crashing. Tasks should even though only one process can be executed at a time. prevents processes from interfering appear to run simultaneously Manage Backing Store The is another term for such as the magnetic , optical drives or solid state memory sticks. backing store secondary storage devices hard disk drive ​ The OS ensures data is stored correctly and can be from the backing store. efficiently retrieved Files are organised in a hierarchical (logical) structure . Manage Input / Output Devices The OS manages the (such as a keyboard or mouse) and the (such as a monitor or speaker). receiving of data from input devices transfer of data to output devices Manage Security The OS a llows users to with different permissions. It also permits multiple users to . create, manage and delete accounts log in and change passwords ​ and software is managed by the OS as well as some processes. Antivirus firewall data encryption Manage Printing Manage the User Interface The final function of an operating system is to provide a user interface , allowing a human to interact with the computer system . The way in which a user can navigate a computer system is known as human-computer interaction ( HCI ). Graphical User Interface (GUI) The most common type of user interface is a ( ) which can be presented in the following ways: graphical user interface GUI are displayed to represent to applications and files. Icons shortcuts can be opened at the same time and switched between. Multiple windows A is displayed and allowing for , , and data. folder and file system manipulated copying searching sorting deleting The interface can be , such as changing font sizes and the . customised desktop background The taskbar allows shortcuts to be pinned for quick access . Menus can be opened from the Start button to display files and shortcuts. can be accessed such as . System settings network and hardware options Command-Line Interface Other types of user interface do exist, such as a ( ). command-line interface CLI This type of interface is and requires users to interact with the system by . This is a process and mistakes could easily accidentally delete data. There are many commands to learn so only who have been o learn this interface will be able to efficiently make use of it. entirely text-based typing commands complicated experts trained t Menu-Driven Interface A menu-driven interface . Examples include (ATMs) and . displays data in a series of linked menus cash machines old iPods ​ This type of interface is generally and as commands do not need to be memorised. However it can be through a large number of menus without a search feature. user friendly easy to use annoying to find specific data Touch-Sensitive Interface Another type of user interface is a , used with . touch-sensitive interface smartphones and tablets ​ A human interacts with the device by , making it and without training. Touch-sensitive interfaces may and it will compared to using a keyboard. pressing on a touchscreen very intuitive suitable for most users not work with dirty or wet fingers take longer to write text Voice-Driven Interface A voice-driven interface can be to a listening device. Examples include Amazon's devices, Apple's technology and . controlled by speaking commands aloud Alexa Siri Google Home ​ This interface is , can be used and helps to . However or in what can be performed. intuitive hands-free speed up processes commands may be misheard limited uesto's uestions Q Q 5.1 - Operating Systems: ​ 1. Describe each role of the operating system : 1. Manage input and output devices [ 2 ] 2. Manage printing [ 2 ] 3. Manage processes 4. Manage backing store [ 2 ] 5. Manage memory [ 2 ] 6. Manage security [ 2 ] ​ [ 2. Describe 5 different ways the operating system can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) . 5 ] ​ 3. Describe two advantages and two disadvantages of using the following types of human-computer interaction (HCI) : a. Command-Line interface [ 4 ] b. Touch-Sensitive interface [ 4 ] c. Menu-Driven interface [ 4 ] d. Voice-Driven interface [ 4 ] 4.9 - Validation & Verification Theory Topics 5.2 - Utility Software

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